His lieutenant Antonio Jose de Sucre won the battle of Pichincha on 24 May 1822, which guaranteed Ecuadorian independence. Quito became independent from Spain after the legendary Battle of Pichincha on the volcano above Quito on May 24, 1822. The military unit raised and financed in Guayaquil was given the name of Division Protectora de Quito ("Division for the Protection of Quito"). ... Ecuador: Independence Day August 10: 1809 The first clash with a Royalist covering force was a success, occurring on November 9, 1820, at Camino Real, a strategic mountain pass along the road from Guayaquil to Guaranda. The Spanish army continued its advance south, towards Cuenca, retaking all major towns along the way. Ecuador broke away again in 1820 and the people appealed to Simon Bolivar for help. A long period of conflict and instability followed, caused mainly by struggles between conservative and liberal elements, clerical and anticlerical movements and large landowners and owners of small farms and plantations. No part of this site shall be reproduced, copied, or otherwise distributed without the express, written consent of Ecuador.com. An army of around 5,000 troops, under the command of veteran Spanish Colonel Francisco González, was dispatched south to deal with the 2,000-strong patriot army, stationed in Ambato. The encounter, which ended with the destruction of Gonzalez's force, took place near the town of Cone, on August 19, 1821. And yet, not all was lost: help was on the way. The Australian nation became independent at some point after 1931 and had the power to act independently, but for some reason chose not to do so. (Select all that apply.) The stage was set for the campaign of the liberation of Quito. The uprising in Bogotá on July 20, Colombia - Revolution and independence | Britannica All trademarks and web sites that appear throughout this site are the property of their respective owners. 3.3.1 The Republic of Bolivia. The first rebellion against Spanish rule took place in 1809, but only in 1822 did Ecuador gain independence as part of the Federation of Gran Colombia, from which it withdrew in 1830. This freed Quito and the lands it controlled. Nonetheless, division among the Cuban insurgents saw them surrender and signed the Pact of Zanjon in 1878, ending the war. In 1828-1829 Ecuador was involved in a war with Peru over the border. The archeological evidence suggests that the Paleo-Indians' first dispersal into the Americas occurred near the end of the last glacial period, around 16,500–13,000 years ago. Ecuador's capital Quito was a city of around ten thousand inhabitants. The economic development associated with the cocoa boom at the end of the 19th and the first quarter of the 20th century helped to perk up and stabilize the country’s administration despite the recurrent turnover in rulers – 18 presidents between 1897 and 1934 and 25 presidents between 1934 and 1988. Upon receiving word of the defeat, Aymerich retraced his steps and headed back to the highlands. Unlike Spain’s other colonies, it enjoyed relative autonomy, as the colony’s long-distance from the Kingdom of Spain made direct administration problematic. De Sucre's instructions were clear: "To liberate the capital city of Quito, whose taking will bring about the liberation of the whole Department",[This quote needs a citation] as the first step towards later operations aimed at securing the complete independence of Perú. In 1810 the subordinated jurisdictions in New Granada threw out their Spanish officials, except in Santa Marta, Ríohacha, and what are now Panama and Ecuador. And a statue of these two victors shaking hands is found at the city’s waterfront. Ecuador became part of Gran Colombia with Colombia and Venezuela. Much later migrations to Ecuador may have come via the Amazon tributaries, others descended from northern Sout… A long period of conflict and instability followed, caused mainly by struggles between conservative and liberal elements, clerical and anticlerical movements and large landowners and owners of small farms and … Culture in Ecuador, Cuisine, Religion, People and Tradition. The Incan Empire extended over the highland area to an area near to Quito. It looked as if the liberation of the entire territory would be easier than expected. After Ecuador gained independence from Spain, Ecuador merged with Gran Colombia. Why did people in India want independence? The second chapter in Ecuador's struggle for emancipation from Spanish colonial rule began in Guayaquil, where independence was proclaimed in October 1820 by a local patriotic junta under the leadership of the poet José Joaquín Olmedo. Unlike the earlier juntas, Olmedo appealed to Argentina and Venezuela for support. After three years, the Audiencia of Quito was annexed back to Spain in 1812. Ecuador is made up of many provinces but the one we will be concentrating on is the El Oro Province. The authorities in Guayaquil, who on November 11, 1820, had issued a decree creating the Provincia Libre de Guayaquil (Free Province of Guayaquil), desperately organized a ragtag detachment from the survivors of Huachi plus some reinforcements (300 men altogether, including some 50 cavalry), ordering it to make a final stand at Babahoyo. During the first century of its independence, Ecuador had changed its constitutions 13 times and only a small number of its presidents had managed to serve a full four-year term. The Audiencia of Quito would later be incorporated into the Viceroyalty of Peru. The leaders of the movement, a combination of Venezuelan, Ecuadorian, and Peruvian pro-independence officers from the colonial army, along with Ecuadorian intellectuals and patriots, set up a Junta de Gobierno and raised a military force with the purpose of defending the city and carrying the independence movement to the other provinces in the country. asked by Juliette on November 16, 2016; History Ecuador.com. Expeditions initiated by Francisco Pizarro, who discovered and occupied Peru, founded the settlements and extended Spanish rule over the highland basins and coastal lowlands. Cuenca joined Guayaquil when achieved its independence on November 3rd 1820, that's another public holiday. By clicking Agree you are accepting Terms of Service. In Ecuador, on 9 October 1820, Guayaquil became the first city to gain its independence from Spain. Young Simón Bolívar was an important voice during this time, advocating for full independence. Aymerich moved to block any further progress, and in the Second Battle of Huachi, which took place on September 12, 1821, annihilated Sucre's infantry. With hardly any gold or silver, Ecuador did not draw many Europeans settlers throughout the Spanish colonial period, which lasted until 1822. With the support of the U.S. government, Panama issues a declaration of independence from Colombia. Even more welcomed perhaps was what De Sucre had brought along with him: 1,000 muskets; 50,000 musket rounds; 8,000 bits of flint; 500 sabers, and 100 pairs of pistols. The liberator because he had knowledge on how to gain freedom through revolt. Its immediate purpose was to advance on the cities of Guaranda and Ambato, in the central highlands, hoping to bring them to the independence movement, and cutting all road communication between Quito and the cities of Guayaquil and Cuenca, so as to forestall any Royalist countermove from the north. Haitian independence proclaimed Two months after his defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte’s colonial forces, Jean-Jacques Dessalines proclaims the independence of … However, the alliance did not work out, with Ecuador … Cotopaxi is home to Latacunga, which is the capital of the province. By 1822, independence had been won for all Ecuador; though it was still part of Gran Colombia for a … Thus, amid total military failure and a number of Royalist reprisals on the civilian population of the cities of the highlands, the attempt of the Junta de Guayaquil to carry out the independence of the Presidencia de Quito came to an end. The coastal section and the high Andean basins situated in modern day Ecuador, were populated by Indian tribes when the first Europeans reached the area's Pacific coast in 1526. Please help us out and disable your ad-blocker. It is approximately 2,850 meters or 9,055 feet above the mean sea level. The first Spanish settlement in Ecuador was established in 1534 at Quito on the site of an important Incan town of the same name. Cotopaxi is one of the many provinces in Ecuador. While that attempt proved unsuccessful, it sowed the seeds of revolution, and on October 9th 1820, the coastal port of Guayaquil became the first city to gain its independence from Spain. On July 5, 1811 seven of the ten Venezuelan provinces gained their independence from the Spanish crown. This site is supported by ads. Achievement of independence. The Ecuadorian War of Independence was fought from 1820 to 1822 between several South American armies and Spain over control of the lands of the Royal Audience of Quito, a Spanish colonial administrative jurisdiction from which would eventually emerge the modern Republic of Ecuador. Between 1821 and 1830, it belonged to the Gran Colombia confederation with Ecuador and Colombia. Guayaquil Independence Day in Ecuador Date in the current year: October 9, 2020 Guayaquil Independence Day is one of the public holidays in Ecuador. This victory opened the way into the inter-Andean highlands, and the capture of Guaranda soon followed. An independence day is an annual event commemorating the anniversary of a nation's independence or statehood, ... Algeria gained independence following the Algerian War and the Algerian independence referendum. On November 19, 1821, a 90-day armistice was signed at Babahoyo, putting an end to Sucre's ill-fated first attempt to liberate Quito. Field-Marshal Melchor Aymerich, acting President and supreme commander of Royalist forces in the Presidencia de Quito, took swift action. The Ecuadorian War of Independence is par… Guayaquil, Ecuador’s main port and largest city, gained its independence on October 9, 1820. Ecuador was then a province of the vice-royalty of New Granada, which was run from Bogota. Which countries did Simon Bolivar help to gain independence from Spain? It took nine more years to liberate Ecuador, which … As the Royalist army did not seem to be particularly inclined to come down to the plains to meet them, the Patriots sent some guerrilla bands back into the highlands, which were finally ambushed and massacred on January 4, 1821, at the Battle of Tanizagua. In the Battle of Huachi, on November 22, 1820, the Royalist army inflicted a severe defeat on Urdaneta's force, which had to fall back, badly mauled, to Babahoyo, on the coastal plains. Venezuela gained its independence from Spain in 1821, after a 10-year struggle led by Simón Bolívar, Francisco Miranda, and others. India is one of these countries, having gained their independence from Britain in 1947. Spain had domestic problems of its own that hindered its war efforts in the final years of the conflict after the eruption of Spain’s Third Carlist War in 1872. On October 9, 1820, the port city of Guayaquil proclaimed its independence after a brief and almost bloodless revolt against the local garrison. Another settlement was established four years later near the river Guayas in Guayaquil. The capital of the province is a town called Machala, one of fourteen different cantons found here. It was there, on August 10, 1809, that one of the first calls for independence from Spain was made in Latin America ("Luz de América, el Primer Grito de la Independencia"), under the leadership of the city's criollos, including Carlos Montúfar, Eugenio Espejo and Bishop Cuero y Caicedo. We are using cookies to make the website better. All rights reserved. On May 30, 1830, the Republic of Ecuador became … 3.3 Consolidation of the independence, 1825–1830. On July 13, 1822, the government of Guayaquil joined Quito in Gran Colombia which included present-day Colombia and Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador, northern Peru, western Guyana and northwest Brazil. August 10th, 1830, is celebrated as the Independence Day in Ecuador. Latacunga is situated on a plateau, which is a piece of land that is much higher then the surrounding flat areas. Guayaquil soon also became the meeting place of the two great South American liberators, Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin. By July 1821, Sucre had almost finished deploying the Army around Babahoyo, ready to advance on the highlands as soon as the weather allowed. However, other cities, like Guayaquil, had also declared independence separately. Luz de America was the nickname given to Quito; the city's call for independence was heard around the continent. At that time, the Australian state did not gain independence from Britain. This site is not affiliated with any government entity associated with a name similar to the site domain name. The revolution was engineered by a Panamanian faction backed The Napoleonic invasion of Spain in 1808 sparked the Creoles (those of European descent born in America) in other Spanish colonies to … Francisco de Miranda was one of the main leaders for Venezuela against the Spanish rule and is celebrated today. The first Indians who reached Ecuador may have journeyed by land from North and Central America or by boat down the Pacific Ocean coastline. The country was run by dictators and the army played an important role in internal politics. Aymerich acted to preempt the patriot plans with a pincer movement: he would lead his Army from Guaranda down to Babahoyo, while Colonel González, coming from the southern highlands down to Yaguachi, would attack Sucre's flank. The first of the three wars was known as the “Guerra de Los Diez Anos” (The Ten Years’ War), named after its ten years between 1868 and 1878. On May 24, 1822, the rest of Ecuador gained … Ecuador was part of the Viceroyalty of Peru until 1740, when it was transferred to the Viceroyalty of New Granada (together with Colombia and Venezuela). Learn how and when to remove this template message, Iberian Peninsula and South America (1762–63), Banda Oriental and Rio Grande do Sul (1762–63), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ecuadorian_War_of_Independence&oldid=979512927, Articles lacking in-text citations from August 2017, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Rebel victory; Independence of Ecuador from Spain, This page was last edited on 21 September 2020, at 05:47. By February 1821, the foreign aid requested by the Junta de Guayaquil back in October finally materialized in the form of General Antonio José de Sucre, sent by General Simón Bolívar, President of Gran Colombia. … The news of Guayaquil's proclamation of independence spread rapidly to other cities in the Presidencia, and several towns followed the example in quick succession. The guerrillas' commanding officer, Spanish-born Colonel Gabriel García Gomez, taken prisoner after the battle, was executed by a firing squad and decapitated, his head sent to Quito to be displayed before the population. By the middle of November, Spanish rule over the Presidencia had been reduced to Quito and its surrounding areas in the northern highlands. The Ecuadorian War of Independence was fought from 1820 to 1822 between several South American armies and Spain over control of the lands of the Royal Audience of Quito, a Spanish colonial administrative jurisdiction from which would eventually emerge the modern Republic of Ecuador. What was simon bolivars nickname and why? News of the presence of the patriot army in Guaranda had the intended effect: most of the towns in the highlands proclaimed their independence in quick succession, Latacunga and Riobamba doing so on November 11, and Ambato on November 12, 1820. The first rebellion against Spanish rule took place in 1809, but only in 1822 did Ecuador gain independence as part of the Federation of Gran Colombia, from which it withdrew in 1830. Flores reign was distinguished by its ruthlessness, which ultimately lead to the popular discontent that forced him into exile in 1845. 3.3.2 Struggles inside Gran Colombia. © Copyright 1995-2020 Ecuador.com. Although Honduras had gained independence from Spain, after the declaration of the independence of Central America was drafted by the Honduran lawyer José Cecilio de Valle, Honduras was still not completely independent.It was briefly annexed by Mexico until 1823. General Juan José Flores took charge of the nascent Ecuadorian State and lead without interlude for Ecuador’s first fifteen years of independence. In October of 1820, in Guayaquil, a junta under the leadership of José Joaquín Olmedo declared Ecuador’s independence from its colonial master. The central figure of the war of independence was Simón Bolívar, who first liberated the province of Venezuela in 1813. In what ways was . By that time, the tide of the wars of independence in South America had turned decisively against Spain: Simón Bolívar's victory at the Battle of Boyacá (August 7, 1819) had sealed the independence of the former Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada, while to the south, José de San Martín, after landing his Army on the Peruvian coast on September 8, 1820, was preparing the campaign for the independence of the Viceroyalty of Perú. May 24, 1822, is celebrated as the first Independence Day for Ecuador against its independence from Spain. The Patriot forces lost 800 men, mostly killed, plus 50 prisoners, among them General Mires. Portoviejo declared its independence on October 18, 1820, and Cuenca—the economic center of the southern highlands—did the same on November 3, 1820. The war ended with the defeat of the Spanish forces at the Battle of Pichinchaon May 24, 1822, which brought about the independence of the entire Presidencia de Quito. It would be 10 more years before Ecuador officially gained her independence on May 24, 1822, as a result of the Battle of Pichincha. Later, in the 1830's Venezuela got its complete independence from the Spanish. This is a coastal province in the southern part of the country. Wealthy Venezuelan creole who led rebel armies against spanish forces and helped several latin american countries gain independence ecuador, panama, peru, venezuela. 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs) 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire) 5 July 1962 (from France) none (territory of the US) 1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of France and Spain) 11 November 1975 (from Portugal) none … As the battle had also taken a heavy toll on the Royalists, Aymerich decided against exploiting his victory with an advance on the coastal plains. On December 20, 1820, after the defenders of the city were defeated at the Battle of Verdeloma, Cuenca was retaken by the Royalist army. Disaster struck the Patriots. From the year 1822 to 1830, Ecuador was part of the nation of Gran Colombia, along with Venezuela and Colombia. Cuenca is Ecuador’s third-largest city, and it was one of the major cities in the colonial era as well. The Ecuadorian War of Independence is part of the Spanish American wars of independence fought during the first two decades of the 19th century. Bolívar also informed Guayaquil that he would begin a simultaneous campaign from the north. Meanwhile, however, Simon Bolivar had been freeing Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador from Spanish imperial rule and it was essential to unite the two armies. On April 19, 1810, the people of Caracas declared provisional independence from Spain: they were still nominally loyal to King Ferdinand, but would rule Venezuela by themselves until such a time as Spain was back on its feet and Ferdinand restored. Hopes for a quick victory turned out to be premature and short-lived. Sucre followed, his main force occupying Guaranda on September 2, 1821. The military campaign for the independence of the territory now known as Ecuador from Spanish rule could be said to have begun after nearly three hundred years of Spanish colonization. On October 9, 1820, Guayaquil became the first city in Ecuador to gain its independence from Spain. On 3 November, 1820, before the rest of the country had gained its independence, Cuenca declared itself free from Spanish rule. Thanks to a well-developed espionage network, Sucre was apprised of Aymerich's intentions, and sent General John Mires to deal with González. The Division, under the command of Colonels Luis Urdaneta and León Febres-Cordero, both of them ringleaders of the revolt in Guayaquil, began its advance out of the coastal plain towards the highlands, and by November 7, was ready to begin its march up the Andes mountains. The rest of Ecuador celebrated independence following victory at the Battle of Pichincha under the command of Simón Bolívar, on 24 May 1822. The colony would later be embroiled i… Ecuador’s Declaration of Independence was signed on 10 August of 1809, but it would take another 20 years for Ecuador to become a fully independent Republic. ... 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