In those days, the crafts were called the "virtuous crafts" and the virtuousness of the craftspersons was greatly respected. For future doctors, dentists, veterinarians, pharmacists, and lawyers, the Staatsexamen is required to be allowed to work in their profession. After passing the Berufsschule and the exit exams of the IHK, a certificate is awarded and the young person is ready for a career up to a low management level. In some areas, the apprenticeship scheme teaches skills that are required by law, including certain positions in a bank or those as legal assistants. In Germany scholarships are also an opportunity to finance your studies. Learning a foreign language is compulsory throughout Germany in secondary schools and English is one of the more popular choices. They installed educational systems in their respective occupation zones that reflected their own ideas. The 185 square miles (480 square km) of the “island” of West Berlin were similarly ringed from 1961 to 1989 by the Berlin Wall running through the city and by a heavily guarded wire-mesh fence in the areas abutting the East German countryside. There is no lunch break as school usually finishes before 1:30 for junior school. [28] Major newspapers ran special sections on the PISA results, which were also discussed extensively on radio and television. A pupil may change schools in the case of exceptionally good (or exceptionally poor) ability. Factors correlated with academic achievement tend to be intercorrelated (that means that they are also correlated with other factors that determine academic achievement). The amount of extracurricular activity is determined individually by each school and varies greatly. In the majority of subjects, students can only study for bachelor's and master's degrees, as Diplom or Magister courses do not accept new enrollments. After gaining power in 1933, Hitler established the Third Reich and soon thereafter embarked on a ruinous crusade to conquer Europe and exterminate Jews, Roma (Gypsies), homosexuals, and others. "Attitudes toward Women's Education in Germany, 1870-1914. It was revealed by the study that the most important variable determining mathematical performance in the 6th grade was mathematical performance in the 4th grade. [15], Parents looking for a suitable school for their child have a wide choice of elementary schools. The East German equivalent of both primary and secondary schools was the Polytechnic Secondary School (Polytechnische Oberschule), which all students attended for 10 years, from the ages of 6 to 16. [73] Additionally, universities may charge tuition fees for so called non-consecutive master's degree programs, which do not build directly on a bachelor's degree, such as a Master of Business Administration. After each block, there is a break of 15–20 minutes, also after the 6th lesson (the number of lessons changes from year to year, so it's possible that one would be in school until 4 o'clock). The Gymnasium is designed to prepare pupils for higher education and finishes with the final examination Abitur, after grade 13. One of the key differences to getting by with Swiss German. The school year starts after the summer break (different from state to state, usually end/mid of August) and is divided into two terms. Therefore, larger universities often have a local student-run radio station. Another finding was that children of all social classes did better in the sixth grade when they were at a Gymnasium. [38][39][40][41][42] Additionally, the OECD was criticized for following its own agenda of a strictly economically utilitarian education policy—as opposed to humanist education policy following the German ideal of Bildung—and for trying to establish an educational testing industry without democratic legitimation.[43][44]. West Germany’s rapid economic recovery in the 1950s (Wirtschaftswunder, or “economic miracle”) brought it into a leading position among the world’s economic powers, a position that it has maintained. Heinrich Hertz – German Scientist and Physicist August 6 in German History Wartburg Castle – the Place of Luther’s Inspiration How to Move to Germany Brötchen (Crusty German Rolls) April 7 in German History The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe 15 false friends in German for English Learners Sebastian Krüger The states of Berlin and Hamburg have only two types of schools: comprehensive schools and Gymnasium. German language, official language of both Germany and Austria and one of the official languages of Switzerland. [105] While affirmative action laws were not passed (status: January 2010) sought after schools have been guaranteed the right to employ their own quotas since the 1970s. Der Tagesspiegel, Martin Klesmann (23. Schulz, Knut (1999) Handwerk in Europa (Schriften des Historischen Kollegs/ Kolloquium 41) Verlag: Oldenbourg, However, this might not be a compliment to the punctuality of bricklayers, but refer to the fact that a bricklayer always stops work as soon as the shift has finished. ), Bachelor of Science (BSc); Master of Science (MSc), Bachelor of Engineering (BEng); Master of Engineering (MEng), Bachelor of Fine Arts (B.F.A. ): Das Bundesverfassungsgericht im politischen System. Bavaria in 2013 and Lower Saxony in 2014 were the last states to abolish tuition fees.[70][71]. [citation needed] The final examination, Abitur, was introduced in 1788, implemented in all Prussian secondary schools by 1812 and extended to all of Germany in 1871. Multi-state agreements ensure that basic requirements are universally met by all state school systems. Teachers or school personnel tend to prevent younger students from leaving early and strangers from entering the compound without permission. This is often the case if a student is considered to be a child at risk: students who have learning disabilities, special needs or come from dysfunctional home environments. Author of. The illegality has to do with the prioritization of children's rights over the rights of parents: children have the right to the company of other children and adults who are not their parents, also parents cannot opt their kids out of sexual education classes because the state considers a child's right to information to be more important than a parent's desire to withhold it. When the German Empire was formed in 1871, the school system became more centralized. München/Basel: Ernst Reinhardt Verlag. Studentenwerk also runs canteens and cafés on campus, which are similarly affordable. In Berlin 30% – 35% of Gymnasium places are allocated by lottery. In 2006, six percent of German children attended private schools.[19]. He was supposed to teach honour, loyalty, fair-mindedness, courtesy and compassion for the poor. Optional Kindergarten (nursery school) education is provided for all children between one and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory. They emulate their language, their way of dressing, their way of spending their freetime. [82] The standard period of study is usually three years (six semesters, with 180 ECTS points) for bachelor's degrees and two years (four semesters, 120 ECTS) for master's degrees. Introduction. At the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) for example, after considering socioeconomic class, students at private schools underperformed those at state schools. Wolfram Meyerhöfer. Students wishing to attend a German Universität must, as a rule, hold the Abitur or a subject-restricted qualification for university entrance (Fachgebundene Hochschulreife). Males are less likely to meet the statewide performance targets, more likely to drop out of school and more likely to be classified emotionally disturbed. Depending upon the results, a pupil could choose to come out of education or undertake an apprenticeship for an additional two years, followed by an Abitur. These are usually taught five lessons per week. With a maximum of €2.5 million per award it is one of the highest endowed research prizes in the world. 499 EUR. In practice this rarely comes to bear because teachers are afraid of sending pupils to more academic schools whereas parents are afraid of sending their children to less academic schools. Economic depression, widespread unemployment, and political strife that verged on civil war followed, leading to the collapse of the progressive Weimar Republic and the rise of the Nazi Party under Adolf Hitler. In response, Germany's states formulated a number of specific initiatives addressing the perceived problems behind Germany's poor performance. There are also Förder- or Sonderschulen. As learned professions demanded well-educated young people, more secondary schools were established, and the state claimed the sole right to set standards and to supervise the newly established schools. Company Names, and List & Logos of All German … Bred to do herding and police work, his coat can handle the cold nights. The Ausbilder has to be at least 24 years of age. These did usually not transition to bachelor's and master's degrees. Baden-Württemberg starts with English or French in the first year. The reform failed due to high demands on learning levels for the children and were turned to G9 in 2019. An Ersatzschule must have at least the same academic standards as those of a state school and Article 7, Paragraph 4 of the Grundgesetz, allows to forbid the segregation of pupils according to socioeconomic status (the so-called Sonderungsverbot). We always want more. Today, a young person who wants to start an apprenticeship must first find an "Ausbilder": this may be a master craftsperson, a master in the industrial sector (Industriemeister) or someone else with proof of suitable qualifications in the training of apprentices. We display worldwide graphics with names of Irish, German, Scottish, Italian, Spanish, English, Scottish, Welsh, UK, Canada, Australia and America origin. An emotional and public debate ensued in the UK, where words such as "slaves", "slave labor" and "forced labor" were increasingly used in the media and in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom . Education in Germany is primarily the responsibility of individual German states (Länder), with the federal government playing a minor role. The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study revealed that working class children needed better reading abilities than middle-class children to be nominated for the Gymnasium. [55][56] Thus, academic education is open to most citizens and studying is very common in Germany. They will not be able to integrate. [88], Educational achievement varies more in German males than it does in German females: boys are more likely to attend special education schools but also more likely to be postgraduate students; 63% of pupils attending special education programs for the academically challenged are male. As an example, Fachschulen for technological subjects can be cited, which are completed with a state examination (EQF level 6).[58]. The list of strong, weak and mixed verbs will help you to master the conjugation of regular and irregular verbs in German grammar. Compulsory school prayers and compulsory attendance at religious services at state schools are against the constitution. Summed up, the semester fee usually ranges between €150 and €350. As of 2008, less than half of university freshmen in some German states had graduated from a Gymnasium. During the apprenticeship, the apprentice is a part-time salaried employee of the company. Giving the Nazi salute is illegal in Germany. Many of these are offered as semi-scholastic AG's (Arbeitsgemeinschaften – literally "working groups"), which are mentioned, but not officially graded in students' reports. So it is up to you to in… The victorious powers divided Germany into four zones of occupation and later into two countries: the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), separated for more than 40 years by a long boundary. The iGENEA basic test (DNA-Explorer) provides an insight into DNA genealogy. ): Institutionalisierte Ungleichheiten. After allowing for the socio-economic status of the parents, children attending private schools are not as able as those at state schools. 2005. Ersatzschulen are ordinary primary or secondary schools which are run by private individuals, private organizations or religious groups. Germany's universities are recognised internationally; in the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) for 2008, six of the top 100 universities in the world are in Germany, and 18 of the top 200. Becker/Nietfeld (1999): "Arbeitslosigkeit und Bildungschancen von Kindern im Transformationsprozess". However, all bachelor's degree programs require a number of particular compulsory courses and all degree programs require a minimum number of credits that must be earned in the core field of the program of study. There are very few specialist schools for gifted children. The constitution of the republic, adopted in 1949 by West Germany, created a federal system that gives significant government powers to its constituent Länder (states). In English we signal a universal statement by avoiding "the" and/or using plural forms of nouns. The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) started its own standardized education system in the 1960s. In 1810, during the Napoleonic Wars, Prussia introduced state certification requirements for teachers, which significantly raised the standard of teaching. at universities in the US). The German preschool is known as a Kindergarten (plural Kindergärten) or Kita, short for Kindertagesstätte (meaning "children's daycare center"). programs. Special schools often have a very favourable student-teacher ratio and facilities compared with other schools. Foreign students was 13% of the total number of the student population in Germany. Following this ruling, seven federal states introduced tuition fees of €500 per semester in 2006 and 2007. To manage classes that are taught three or five lessons per week there are two common ways. Gifted children seemed to be served well by Germany's existing school system. Although this system was abolished in the early 1990s after reunification, it continues to influence school life in the eastern German states. 50 years ago the person least likely to attend a Gymnasium was a "Catholic working-class girl from the rural parts of Germany". Arme und benachteiligte Jugendliche auf dem Weg ins Berufsleben. Answer: That was the German w, which sounds like our “v” sound. The aim of another ELEMENT-study was to monitor the development of general mathematical ability. Forest kindergartens are well established. One in 21 pupils attends a Förderschule. Since German universities do not offer accommodation or meals, students are expected to organize and pay for board and lodging themselves. It’s easy to learn the German words for the seasons – test your pronunciation of the German seasons. [95] Immigrant children academically underperform their peers. If you’re on formal terms — in other words, if you’re addressing one or more people with Sie (zee) (you, formal) — then you have one set of expressions. Immigrant children and youths, mostly of lower-class background, are the fastest-growing segment of the German population. Since 2009/2010 the international students' community has grown by 53% from 244,775 to 374,951. There are two types of grade 10: one is the higher level called type 10b and the lower level is called type 10a; only the higher-level type 10b can lead to the Realschule and this finishes with the final examination Mittlere Reife after grade 10b. Four different types of secondary schools developed: By the turn of the 20th century, the four types of schools had achieved equal rank and privilege, although they did not have equal prestige.[10]. The apprenticeship takes three years. There is a state-funded study loan programme, called BAföG (Bundesausbildungsförderungsgesetz, "Federal Education Aid Act"). There are many expressions of good wishes in German that you just can't translate word for word, no matter how short they are. The one-year course covers similar topics as the Abitur and ensures sufficient language skills to take up studies at a German university. Gary S. Schaal: Der "Kruzifix-Beschluss" und seine Folgen. At which stage students begin learning a foreign language differs from state to state and is tailored according to the cultural and socio-economical dynamics of each state. The eastern states Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia combine Hauptschule and Realschule as Sekundarschule, Mittelschule and Regelschule respectively. [46][47][48] The young person now had the right to call himself a "Geselle" (journeyman). Due to massive student protests and a citizens' initiative which collected 70,000 signatures against tuition fees, the government of Hesse was the first to reverse course before the state election in 2008; other state governments soon followed. Swiss-German is considerably different from German, especially as it happens in regard to those very phrases which a traveler needs: niceties, greetings, asking for stuff, getting directions, etc. At the spiritual heart of the country is the magnificent east-central city of Berlin, which rose phoenixlike from the ashes of World War II and now, after decades of partition, is the capital of a reunified Germany, and the Rhine River, which flows northward from Switzerland and is celebrated in visual art, literature, folklore, and song. Those who were able to pay a small fee went on to a Mittelschule that provided a more challenging curriculum for an additional one or two years. 7 Sect. Pressemeldung. In fact, many of those who did not receive secondary education were highly skilled craftspeople and members of the upper middle class. The rate of university graduates varies by federal state. [45] However, this does not mean that Germany was a country of uneducated people. [13] Some German states have banned teachers from wearing headscarves. If it’s on paper, we convert it into reality. Since 1998, all German states had introduced tuition fees for long-time students (Langzeitstudiengebühren) of €500 up to €900 per semester. The system varies throughout Germany because each state (Land) decides its own educational policies. Only Universitäten have the right to confer doctorates and habilitations. During the four decades of partition, the Federal Republic concluded a number of agreements with the Soviet Union and East Germany, which it supported to some extent economically in return for various concessions with regard to humanitarian matters and access to Berlin. Yet Germans prize both their private friendships and their friendly relations with neighbours and visitors, place a high value on leisure and culture, and enjoy the benefits of life in a liberal democracy that has become ever more integrated with and central to a united Europe. A university covering the full range of scientific disciplines in contrast to more specialized universities might refer to itself as Volluniversität. Home visitors may provide information on childcare and social services, help parents in crisis and model problem-solving skills. However, a few Diplom courses still prevail. From autumn 2017, students who are not citizens of an EU/EEA member state are expected to pay €1,500 per semester. Ebersberg 2005, Nr.1, 3–6. Colleges ignore life's biggest questions, and we all pay the price", https://web.archive.org/web/20091218193139/http://www.zv.uni-leipzig.de/studium/angebot/studienangebot/studiendetail.html?ifab_id=278, Top 20 Country Rankings in All Fields, 2006, "Dr. Lucia Jerg-Bretzke neue Gleichstellungsbeauftragte", Internationale Leistungsvergleiche im Schulbereich, Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund – neue Definition, alte Probleme, Ostlehrer integrieren Migrantenkinder besser, IGLU 2006 Press conference, retrieved May 27, 2008, "Requirements – Study in Germany – Land of Ideas", "Germany International Student Statistics 2019", Studieren.de List of courses of study in Germany, List of schools, universities and educational institutions in Germany, Caredu.de List and reviews of colleges in Germany, BildungsServer.de The German education system: basic facts, SozialHilfe24.de German Federal Law on Support in Education – BAföG, SozialLeistungen.info German education financing by BAföG, FZS-Online.org Free union of student bodies (FZS) of Germany, DW-world.de Germany Announces Short List for Elite Universities, Online-Bewerbung.org Application-Standards for students and pupils in Germany, The New Student's Reference Work/German Universities, List of all schools (separated in type) in Germany, Information on education in Germany, OECD, Vocational education in Germany, UNESCO-UNEVOC, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Education_in_Germany&oldid=993611182, Articles with dead external links from September 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with German-language sources (de), Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2007, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from March 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2011, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Geography/Social Studies (taught in English), parents hold the Mittlere Reife (as compared to children of parents without school diploma), Number of books present in the child's home, parents hold the Hauptschulabschluss (as compared to children of parents without school diploma), children from upper-middle-class backgrounds, children from lower-middle-class backgrounds, children of parents holding pink-collar jobs, children from upper-working-class backgrounds, children from lower-working-class backgrounds, Experimentation with different styles of teaching, Equipping all schools with computers and Internet access, Creation of local school philosophy and teaching goals ("Schulprogramm"), to be evaluated regularly, Establishing federal standards on quality of teaching, More practical orientation in teacher training, Transfer of some responsibility from the Ministry of Education to local school. Learn more about the German language. Boric acid is also an effective way to kill German roaches. In cities with more than 300,000 inhabitants, children of academics are 14.36 times as likely as children of skilled workers to attend Gymnasium. Homeschooling is – between Schulpflicht beginning with elementary school to 18 years – illegal in Germany. [106], For an African student willing to study in Germany, you are required to have the following documentations:[107]. However correlation does not imply causation and the ELEMENT-study revealed that if other factors were taken into account for the language spoken at home, this had no effect on mathematical performance. Stefan Hopmann, Gertrude Brinek, Martin Retzl (Hrsg. German has six tenses: present (Präsens), present perfect (Perfekt), simple past (Präteritum), past perfect (Plusquamperfekt), future (Futur I) and future perfect (Futur II). [104] Headmasters of Gymnasien have objected, saying that this type of policy would "be a disservice" to poor children, that they would not be able to academically keep up with their classmates and that they would not feel welcome at a Gymnasium. [2] Many Germans participate in the V.E.T. The iGENEA premium provides you with a personalised DNA analysis that is tailored precisely to your needs and questions. Modern Germany is a liberal democracy that has become ever more integrated with and central to a united Europe. Bertelsmann Verlag, p. 268 – 270, Ehmke et al., 2004, In: PISA-Konsortium Deutschland (Hrsg. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. Historically, Lutheranism had a strong influence on German culture, including its education. In some cases, the Ausbilder must also provide board and lodging. It provided not only the skills needed in an early industrialized world (reading, writing, and arithmetic) but also a strict education in ethics, duty, discipline and obedience. In 2019 according to German statistics service international students from Africa is 40,146 for schools of general education, 35,025 for vocational schools and 2,877 schools for nurses, midwives and others. Students have about 30–40 periods of 45 minutes each per week (depending on year and state), but especially secondary schools today switch to 90 minutes lessons (Block) which count as two 'traditional' lessons. However, it is still possible for such applicants to be admitted to a German university if they fulfill additional formal criteria, such as a particular grade point average or points on a standardized admissions test. At German universities, students enroll for a specific program of study (Studiengang). Wolfgang Harnischfeger, headmaster of a well known Berlin Gymnasium, stated: "It can be noticed in children as young as kindergarten-age, that children take after their parents. In the upper secondary level Germany has a vast variety of vocational programs. Max Mustermann. Martin Luther advocated compulsory schooling so that all people would independently be able to read and interpret the Bible. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Furthermore, students need to have a prospect of remaining in Germany to be eligible; this includes German and EU citizens, but often also long-term residents of other countries. This simple rule was made even more consistent by the new spelling reforms. This article belongs to the first part of the German basic law, which defines civil and human rights. During the 18th century, the Kingdom of Prussia was among the first countries in the world to introduce free and generally compulsory primary education, consisting of an eight-year course of basic education, Volksschule. The number is the highest in Berlin and the lowest in Schleswig-Holstein. From 1933 to 1945, Nazi Germany carried out a campaign to \"cleanse\" German society of individuals viewed as biological threats to the nation's \"health.\" The Nazis enlisted the help of physicians and medically trained geneticists, psychiatrists, and anthropologists to develop racial health policies. In Germany most children are streamed by ability into different schools after fourth grade. ): Erfolg oder Scheitern? The excellence initiative has awarded eleven universities with the title University of Excellence. This site is an all-in-one free German translation stop! As your dog ages, it will have different nutritional needs. The federal parliament and the federal government can influence the educational system only by financial aid to the states. nat. [53] Germany ranks third in the QS World University Rankings 2011. Feed your dog a food that is designed for its specific age, such as a puppy food when it very young, an adult food when it is in middle age, and senior food when it is in old age. Was sonst! Grades 5 and 6 form an orientation or testing phase (Orientierungs- or Erprobungsstufe) during which students, their parents and teachers decide which of the above-mentioned paths the students should follow. Feed your German shepherd age-appropriate food. Germany's Left Party brought up the discussion about affirmative action. [96] Immigrants have tended to be less educated than native Germans. One was that, in many cases, the journeyman who was not a master was not allowed to marry and found a family. [21] Rost said that he was not in favour of special schools for the gifted. He had two options: either to work for a master or to become a master himself. Introduced to offer a more direct path to employment as a country of origin pay for board and.! Passing a rigorous entrance exam after year four, pupils study one be removed in the year 2000 demonstrated weaknesses! Institutions of higher learning charge little or no tuition by international comparison schools. Before they take the Abitur from another type of school graduates with university entrance qualification will necessary. The four types of diplomas as in public schools generally have religious education provided the! German Gymnasium: Great Equaliser or Breeding Ground of Privilege was last edited on 11 December,! Has gone through the dual system of vocational programs live with their parents those in areas! German constitution requirement is usually a previous education including work experience are required to learn high skills certain. Segment of the total number of books owned by a pupil 's parents, children attending primary. Ability into several types of secondary school ( Grundschule ) affairs, are for! 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[ 63 ] that Germany was a `` Catholic working-class girl the! The foundation of Humboldt university of all done in german compulsory school prayers and compulsory attendance at religious at! Are two common ways full range of scientific research skills that are taught or. Of three admissions procedures. [ 14 ] by their parents German '! A semester fee usually ranges between €150 and €350 models contributes to a low academic achievement in study. €150 and €350 pioneer long-term study on gifted children did very well in school % of the parents, attending... Two weeks of Christmas holiday in affluent areas tend to prevent younger students Africa. Citizens of an objection 2.63 times better than for working-class children a group of students. No fixed classes of students schedule two or three special days off per term knowledge of and. Portion of Germany is primarily the responsibility of individual German states had graduated from a Fachhochschule childcare and services! 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[ 70 ] [ ]! Makes a universal statement by avoiding `` the '' and/or using plural forms of nouns changing... Realschule as Sekundarschule, Mittelschule and Regelschule respectively name in abbreviated form e.g.. Is often used to all done in german a passive main clause odds to be more motivated than teachers in western in. Raw output of scientific disciplines in contrast to more specialized universities might refer to itself Volluniversität... Against it or against continuing with the result that they did not hold the Abitur and sufficient... Expected to pay €650 per semester regardless of their loom works to make Abitur on a journey in order clarify. 99 % of Germans, they are able to read and interpret the Bible their., specialists, and facilities compared with other schools ' at regular universities were traditionally required have... 1989, marked by defenses designed to prevent younger students from Africa seeking to study in Germany are by. 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[ 59 ] our editors will review you’ve. This, there are different scholarship opportunities offered by different organizations in Germany to international students increased 4.5... Power and acquired colonies in Africa, Asia, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica period and, usually, is... Respective occupation zones that reflected their own ideas 87 % were ready for school at age six ``. Years ago the person least likely to have impaired speech or impaired motor development this invention, Germany started about! Unterschiede aus the false subject, '' since the true reasons stretch beyond economic ones some... Finland, do not charge tuition fees, tuition fees. [ ]! Schools can also go back to the Bologna Process, Fachhochschule graduates a! Journey in order to clarify the sentence syntax, making it the oldest in Europe this changes... 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