Amrina Shafi, Insha Zahoor, Umar Mushtaq, Proline Accumulation and Oxidative Stress: Diverse Roles and Mechanism of Tolerance and Adaptation Under Salinity Stress, Salt Stress, Microbes, and Plant Interactions: Mechanisms and Molecular Approaches, 10.1007/978-981-13-8805-7, (269-300), (2019). 71, 2020. It has been long considered that it is highly unlikely that one gene alone determines plant salinity tolerance, so a useful strategy to obtain salt-tolerant varieties is to pyramid several genes contributing to salinity tolerance (Yeo and Flowers, 1986; Yeo et al., 1990). A mechanism of salt tolerance imposed by Pseudomonas sp. It is thought that excess of salts retards the absorption of water and reduce the growth through osmotic effect. 8.4 Mechanism of salinity tolerance. Understanding the mechanism of stress tolerance along with genes involved in stress signaling network is important for crop improvement. The hypothesis of intracellular compartmentation of solutes is used as a basis for models of tolerance mechanisms operating in roots and in leaves. Overall, the susceptibility or tolerance to high salinity stress in plants is a coordinated action of multiple stress responsive genes, which also cross talk with other components of stress signal transduction pathways. productivity in living organisms including plants and bacteria resulting in significant losses worldwide. The mechanisms of salt stress response and tolerance have eluded definition despite reasonable success in defining their physiological manifestations. • 3. of Salt Tolerance Plants develop various physiological and biochemical mech-anisms in order to survive in soils with high salt concen-tration. Abstract. In this review, we consider the integrated salt metabolism of plants, essentially as a problem in meganutrient physiology. a) Compartmentation in older leaves, leaf sheath and culm: Plant, as an intelligent entity, transport the toxic ions to the older leaves and leaf sheaths which are ready to sacrifice for early senescence and/or death at the cost of saving young growing meristematic tissues. Interestingly, the salt tolerance of eto1-15 plants is a conditional phenotype that is only apparent when plants are exposed to salinity when growing in soil and not when grown in vitro in Petri dishes on high-salt medium. Salt tolerance is the ability of a plant to grow and . Many plants, such as extreme halophytes, display Na + dependence for optimal growth and development and have developed specialized structures such as salt glands and bladders to accommodate high salt concentrations in tissues (Glenn et al., 1999). percentage of soluble salts. This implies a potential predominant contribution of a similar Na + reabsorption mechanism to salt tolerance of barley as found in Arabidopsis, rice and wheat plants. In Handbook of Plant Science in Agriculture. p. 57-75. Salt Tolerance: Tolerance to salt ... the salt tolerance of plants may depend riot only on salt exclusion from cytosol, but also changes in the microenvironment of the enzymes, for instance on whether substrate or protective agents have been increased. In this review, wewill discuss these mechanisms using refer- ences selected as representative of recent work and as suitable entrance points to the relevant literature. Plant Adaptations Plants can survive in many extreme environments. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. Here, I review cold stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. 37, 604–612. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Major plant transcription factor families such as bZIP, NAC, AP2/ERF, and MYB orchestrate regulatory networks underlying abiotic stress tolerance. Consideration is given to the implications of the various mechanisms for the yield potential of salt-tolerant crop plants. Eva van Zelm, Yanxia Zhang, Christa Testerink Vol. In the first part of this review the main features of salt tolerance in higher plants are discussed. Halotolerant species tend to live in areas such as hypersaline lakes, coastal dunes, saline deserts, salt marshes, and inland salt seas and springs. develop its life cycle in a medium that contains high . Tolerance of plants to abiotic stressors such as drought and salinity is triggered by complex multicomponent signaling pathways to restore cellular homeostasis and promote survival. 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