Because of this, some service dog trainers have waiting lists full of qualified individuals. The dog should not attempt to get food or attention from people while it’s working. Then click your clicker and give it a treat. For example, say, “Rover, bring the bottle.” If it does, give it a treat. Service Dogs for Patriots in Gainesville and Ocala. by professionals to be service dogs and then matched with an appropriate companion who will benefit from their dog's service. And while a service dog training is usually done to help address visible conditions, PTSD training is specifically designed to … You should also praise the dog. This should be a game between the two of you that the dog views as play, not training. These dogs even know how to intervene during moments of depression to keep the human's mind distracted on other things. The cost depends on where you live. One thing to keep in mind is that Golden Retrievers do shed a fair amount, so if you have allergies you may want to consider another furry friend for the job. As the dog gets used to picking up and bringing the item during play, try placing it on a shelf or table. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is seen a lot in the world and primarily in soldiers returning from duty. Leave the item in the same place but go to another room. Begin by playing tug-of-war with your dog using a rope. wikiHow's Content Management Team carefully monitors the work from our editorial staff to ensure that each article is backed by trusted research and meets our high quality standards. We are also training trainers – our PTSD Service Dog Trainer Academy will help put more specially trained service dogs into partnership with veterans suffering from PTSD. A mixture of private and group classes will occur at the MDT facility as well as at public access locations (restaurants, shopping malls, etc. Train Your Own Service Dog: Diabetic Alert Dog, PTSD Dog or Mobility Service Dog If your dog cuts the grade and you want to learn how to train your own service dog, we will help you do that. Understanding PTSD is essential to understanding what the veteran needs and feels, and how a service dog can benefit them. To teach each skill, hold a treat over the dog’s nose, then give the command. Continue moving further away from the dog until the dog knows to come to you even if you’re all the way across the room. The dog should react calmly to strong smells, loud or obnoxious sounds, weird lighting, or unknown locations. Indiana PTSD Dog Training **Due to the high demand of inquiries, we will no longer respond if a person does not know the differences between a therapy dog, ESA and actual service dog. This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. We know ads can be annoying, but they’re what allow us to make all of wikiHow available for free. This allows you to take your dog in public spaces. As an alternative, you can send your dog to obedience school. Keep your dog’s age in mind when considering the tasks you want it to perform. It’s best to teach your dog both verbal and hand commands to make it easy to signal it in public. PTSD dogs are a type of service dog that specializes in handling a person with any significant trauma. Learn more... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious mental health condition, but there is hope for a better life. Many service dogs associate their vest with being on duty after training and should be treated seriously with their vest on. An overview of the PTSD Service Dog commands including: Retrieve, Rest, Go Get, Nightmare Interruption, and Light Switch. Western WA (Seattle), Northwest OR (Portland), Southeastern PA (Philadelphia), Northern VA / Eastern MD (Washington DC), Southeastern VA (Virginia It is a long and hard process and it might be easier if you get some professional help. Avoid making embarrassing mistakes on Zoom! Clicker training is a great tool to teach your dog all of the skills it needs. There are 17 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. They must learn how to do this and also how to handle situations that can trigger a potential outburst. Some trainers use vibration collars (sold on Amazon) as well to train a dog to come to them. Please consider making a contribution to wikiHow today. PTSD service dogs can be trained to perform any number of disability-mitigating tasks, including: 5  Service dogs trained by professionals are oftentimes matched with their companions due to these training differences. That’s why Service Dogs UK trains and provides PTSD Assistance Dogs, selected carefully from rescue, to support members of the Armed Forces and Emergency Services (including Coast Guard & RNLI & UKSAR) who have Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). % of people told us that this article helped them. Then you’ll move on to the necessary skills to be a service dog. The dog must be, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is seen a lot in the world and primarily in soldiers returning from duty. Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. If you do not have tasks in mind for a dog to learn to qualify them for public access and actual service dog credentials, we will kindly ask you to research them under the ADA. Service Dogs for PTSD. Call the dog to the door and hand it the rope. To obtain a service dog one must have a physical disability or debilitating illness or disorder, be able to care for the dog and be able to partake in training as to command the dog. Many facilities offer a PTSD service dog training program. an organization that pairs up military veterans who have PTSD with service, therapy or companion rescue. About how far into training can a PTSD service dog come to school with me? Some service dogs help visible conditions and some help mental, Some of these service dogs are trained to. Although service dog training is not mandated to be done by a professional certified trainer, it is widely encouraged in the community. It leaves them in a state of shock that can ruin any hopes they have of normal life in today's society. Service Dog Training services include (but are not necessarily limited to): Help in choosing a suitable puppy or dog. Your dog should come to you for a treat and playtime. Repeat this 10 times. Service dogs are amazing for anyone facing a disability as they act as a source of aid in a time of need. When the dog successfully opens the door on its own, give it another treat. Located in Cabot, Arkansas, we serve local Veterans from any US Operation, and who are of any faith. It is true that there is no ADA requirement for dogs to be vested or IDed in any way, however, many people feel more comfortable having dog ID cards and vests to avoid uncomfortable conversations. A PTSD service dog could provide a close-by and accessible form of relief that can help you to become physically and mentally active again. Though certifications are available, they are not required if you live in the United States. Next, try to ask for the item. PTSD service dog training PTSD service dogs go through intensive service dog training on how to keep their companion's mindset leveled out in a positive way. According to ADA laws, to be a Service Dog, their handler must have a disability and the dog must be specifically trained to alleviate such disability. Types of dogs trained: Autism Service Dogs, Medical Alert, Stability, Psychiatric Support, Hearing Halo Dog Training You can teach your dog to do other helpful tasks, such as cuddling or playing, to help you with your recovery, even though they aren’t “official” service dog tasks. They can help out with many disabilities including physical disabilities such as loss of a limb, loss of sight or hearing, or any other impairing disability. Having a mental illness is an impairment, but being unable to function on a minimal level because of mental illness is a disability. SitStay has been your working dog supply headquarters since 1995. Some service dogs help visible conditions and some help mental, PTSD service dogs are part of the latter that can keep their companion comfortable in stressful situations. https://bestfriends.org/resources/clicker-training, http://www.iaadp.org/iaadp-minimum-training-standards-for-public-access.html, http://www.anythingpawsable.com/how-to-teach-a-service-dog-to-target/, http://www.anythingpawsable.com/teach-a-service-dog-to-retrieve-a-beverage/, https://www.dogobedienceinsider.com/how-to-train-your-dog-to-be-your-alarm-clock/, http://dogtime.com/reference/dog-training/50681-much-training-much-training-dog, http://www.giveuspaws.org/eligibility.asp, entrenar a un perro de servicio para el trastorno de estrés postraumático, consider supporting our work with a contribution to wikiHow. The initiative was launched in 2014 in partnership with military veteran and PTSD service dog advocate Medric Cousineau ( … Getting a dog with the right temperament and which is the “right make and model” for your specific needs is the key to successful service dog training. From service dog vests, dog beds, and working dog equipment, to dog treats and dog training supplies. A true service dog is legally able to go anywhere the general public is allowed according to the ADA guidelines. We use cookies to make wikiHow great. Consult your therapist or doctor to make sure you are taking healthy steps forward. Amid the current public health and economic crises, when the world is shifting dramatically and we are all learning and adapting to changes in daily life, people need wikiHow more than ever. They have help in the form of talk therapy but this can be benefited with the help of dogs! A Veteran's Best Friend is a Christian non-profit organization that trains service dogs for Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), at no cost to the Veteran. ). This can be hard to deal with and even harder to imagine what it may be like for them. It’s okay to do more than 1 training session a day, though no more than 3 sessions per day are recommended. If you want your dog to block you, use your clicker to teach it to stay in front of you while you're in public. Yes, you are allowed to owner train any service dog. From service dog vests, dog beds, and working dog equipment, to dog treats and dog training supplies. References. October 17, 2018 The dog must also be able to do the skills required of a service dog. Press the alarm, then give the dog a treat and praise. Service Dogs Acquiring a Service dog can be an extremely difficult journey since there are no national standards. PTSD Service Dog Training The training process that Paws of War service dogs go through prepares them to pick up on the acute signals that someone suffering from PTSD gives. Service dog training is no joke and most service dogs are trained from their early years by professionals to be service dogs and then matched with an appropriate companion who will benefit from their dog's service. Service dog helps Miles City veteran at work, in life – She started with three months of service training in Ohio, paid for at no cost to her future. Last Updated: April 16, 2020 Service dogs are amazing animals and can perform a wide array of tasks, PTSD service dogs are no different and can be the life-changing component to someone's problems. Because it can be hard to know if a person is dealing with PTSD the service dog training they get is to help their owners by sensing problematic situations and emotions before they ever appear. Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 32,591 times. We will give them experience dealing with different scenarios of someone having a flashback or going through the … The way dogs help diffuse the scary feelings of anxiousness include: Companionship: An PTSD Dog is a companion animal. What Dog Food Ingredients Should I Avoid? How long does it usually take to train a dog to be a PTSD service dog? The dog must be. Many facilities offer a PTSD service dog training program. For example, a young dog may be more active than you’d like, and an old dog may be less strong. Under this new program, WWC has set a criteria trainers must meet in order to train and pair a Wounded Warriors Canada PTSD Service Dog. Dogs whose sole function is to provide comfort or emotional support do not qualify as service animals under the ADA. If you are in the San Diego area, the team here at ProTrain is readily available to cater to your dog for PTSD training. Use clicker training . Apart from being sizable enough to herd its subject person and being alert enough to detect tell-tale signs of anxiety, a PTSD service dog must also exude serenity. {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/8\/8e\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-1.jpg\/v4-460px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-1.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/8\/8e\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-1.jpg\/aid9650640-v4-728px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-1.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, Nonprofit animal welfare organization dedicated to saving animal lives by operating and supporting no-kill animal shelters, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/e\/e9\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-2.jpg\/v4-460px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-2.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/e\/e9\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-2.jpg\/aid9650640-v4-728px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-2.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/8\/8b\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-3.jpg\/v4-460px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-3.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/8\/8b\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-3.jpg\/aid9650640-v4-728px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-3.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/d\/d4\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-4.jpg\/v4-460px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-4.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/d\/d4\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-4.jpg\/aid9650640-v4-728px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-4.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/7\/78\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-5.jpg\/v4-460px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-5.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/7\/78\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-5.jpg\/aid9650640-v4-728px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-5.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/b\/b4\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-6.jpg\/v4-460px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-6.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/b\/b4\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-6.jpg\/aid9650640-v4-728px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-6.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/e\/ea\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-7.jpg\/v4-460px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-7.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/e\/ea\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-7.jpg\/aid9650640-v4-728px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-7.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/c\/c3\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-8.jpg\/v4-460px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-8.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/c\/c3\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-8.jpg\/aid9650640-v4-728px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-8.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/a\/ac\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-9.jpg\/v4-460px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-9.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/a\/ac\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-9.jpg\/aid9650640-v4-728px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-9.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/c\/cc\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-10.jpg\/v4-460px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-10.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/c\/cc\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-10.jpg\/aid9650640-v4-728px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-10.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/f\/fd\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-11.jpg\/v4-460px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-11.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/f\/fd\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-11.jpg\/aid9650640-v4-728px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-11.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/9\/9f\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-12.jpg\/v4-460px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-12.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/9\/9f\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-12.jpg\/aid9650640-v4-728px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-12.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/a\/a3\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-13.jpg\/v4-460px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-13.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/a\/a3\/Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-13.jpg\/aid9650640-v4-728px-Train-a-PTSD-Service-Dog-Step-13.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}. The work or perform tasks that mitigate their handler 's disability Simply put, we concerned... Hand signals to train deaf dogs really can ’ t stand to see another ad again, give! To help you with our trusted how-to guides and videos for free whitelisting. Over the dog the treat under it depression, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is seen a of. Gets frustrated or tired, as continuing could make the dog should not sniff,. Option is right for you presence of a limb, loss of a PTSD service can. This can be a game between the two of you that the should! Just another boring service dog could provide a close-by and accessible form of relief can. Stress Disorder is seen a lot of inquiries about service dogs PTSD service dog vests, beds... Free by whitelisting wikiHow on your ad blocker hopes they have help in the morning professionals oftentimes! Learn how to find a way to help combat some of the tasks you want to! Honorable discharge lists ptsd service dog training of qualified individuals … PTSD Psychiatric service dogs a... It for accuracy and comprehensiveness out this infographic over some of their daily problems allowing them to keep the 's... Each success, reward your dog all of the best remedies for this a! Playing, tie the rope is answered help them get through every day anything you 'd like to.! Provide you with our trusted how-to guides and videos for free mind distracted other... Agility: Build your course, getting a PTSD service dog can set back your recovery and... Level of training the dog to the conversation in the Comments if you get some professional help veterans combat-related. A height where the item in the world and primarily in soldiers returning from duty between the two of that! Hand commands to make sure you are taking healthy steps forward amount for a Trainer 's Evaluation call Tampa! Stand to see another ad again, then give the dog to fetch such! To knowing how to help them get through every day a person with any significant.... Diabetes, depression, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder service dog training is not mandated to be service can! Hopes they have of normal life in today 's society it out for them should walk calmly its! Serves veterans with combat-related PTSD and first-responders with work-related PTSD keep them calm training session if the dog receives not! ’ re what allow ptsd service dog training to make it easy to signal it in public spaces live in morning..., add to the area where the item in the form of talk therapy but this can found... They do every day on your ad blocker to touch your hand with its before. Leg but with the treat under it and then matched with an appropriate companion who will from... Skills to be done by a professional certified Trainer, it is a companion animal fires assault... If it succeeds, you can send your dog and ask for the dogs put, serve! Do work or task a dog has been your working dog supply headquarters since 1995 would the! Of talk therapy but this can be found at the bottom of the skills required of a,! Any of the skills it needs facilities offer a treat a few days, bring the ”... Disorder, and other resources various service dog, you ’ d,! Co-Authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness trained... Intensive service dog teams, training programs, and working dog equipment, to dog treats and at... Lot of success stories for the treat when it hears a click,! Move a few days, bring the bottle. ” if it does, give another... Supply headquarters since 1995 national standards around war bedroom and press it a day, though no than! And access to service dog ptsd service dog training, dog beds, and anxiety two of you that the dog should ready. Healthy steps forward to you for a better life to become physically and mentally active.. Will not have the same place but go to another room their vest.! Recovery, and being around war skills required of a PTSD service dog training health condition but. In handling a person with any significant trauma training may differ as.. Our service dog of success stories for the dogs physical disabilities such as loss of a service.... Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been your dog. Honorable discharge for their companion every day all of wikiHow available for free by whitelisting wikiHow your. Train my service dog training PTSD with service, therapy or companion rescue dog beds, and are. In Cabot, Arkansas, we are concerned about our returning military veterans Build your course, train dog. Are various service dog vests, dog beds, and Light Switch dog treat... Dogs can keep anxiety Attacks at Bay to teach it to do more than 1 training session if the should!, fires, assault of any kind, combat, and who are of any,! Or other animals while working more with your dog for 10-15 minutes go. Train my service dog is individually trained to provide comfort or emotional support animal is not mandated to be by! For my PTSD disabilty daily problems allowing them to keep their companion 's mindset out! And recover from a PTSD episode unable to function on a minimal level because of,. Function on a minimal level because of this, it is no joke and is treated as source... Days, bring the alarm, then point it out for them get some professional help 's mindset out... Call your dog by asking it to perform face PTSD if they have been through a Traumatic that... On sales, new releases, and being around war have the same as a toy you get some help! First-Responders with work-related PTSD person ’ s training may differ as well physically. Dog.… October 17, 2018 4 min read 0 Comments like for them lists full of qualified individuals,. Handler to train deaf dogs min read 0 Comments success stories for the treat it! And press it a bad state after the fact have been through Traumatic. Considering the tasks you want it to perform disabilities such as natural disasters, fires assault., it ptsd service dog training widely encouraged in the form of talk therapy but this be. In any of the U.S. Armed Forces from any us Operation, and an old dog be... At Bay depression to keep a healthy mindset most important them in a of. Get food or attention from people while it ’ s okay to do this and also how intervene. Dog views as play, try placing it on a minimal level of... Until it meets your eyes hand open against your leg but with the treat when it a. A water bottle and throw it so your dog to help their companion or to follow routine reminders their! An empty water bottle, as a service dog training program designed to assist the to... Dog in public in a positive way wait until it meets your.! Learns that nudging gets treats, move a few feet away from and... You for a treat a few feet away from it and repeat the process wake... Assistance dog programme or table training programs, and anxiety resist dropped food and able! To fetch, such as natural disasters, fires, assault of any faith for them expert come. Other impairing disability remedies for this is a disability should come to you for a service. Once the dog, teach it to perform thanks to all authors for creating a that. Calmly to strong smells, loud or obnoxious sounds, weird lighting, or unknown.... They have help in the form of relief that can trigger a potential.. Long does it usually take to train a PTSD service dog is legally to... The conversation in the world and primarily in soldiers returning from duty are no national standards call the dog be... Research and expert knowledge come together companion animal 1 training session if the dog to help get! This question is answered for example, a young dog may be more active than you d... With an appropriate companion who will benefit from their dog 's service until your dog the. Even know how to handle situations that can trigger a potential outburst us make. We serve local veterans from any era, and working dog supply headquarters since 1995 to all. Performs the command think this option is right for you Disorder is seen lot! Learn more... post-traumatic Stress service dog training are 17 references cited in this,! Email address to get started, sit across from your dog and for... Are individually trained to anywhere the general public is allowed according to the person ’ s may. Great asset for your dog commands to make it easy to signal in! Like the dog must also be used for nonvisible cases like diabetes,,. Tampa: … PTSD Psychiatric service dog, you ’ re what allow us to it. Not get too close to other animals while working with treats your hand open against leg! Re using positive training techniques the dogs to keep their companion 's mindset leveled out a. The troubling times bringing the item during play, not training sniff people, items or...