SCSI support : SCSI(스커지 혹은 스카시) 하드 디스크나, 테이프 드라이브, 시디롬, 혹은 그 밖의 다른 SCSI 장비를 갖고 있다면 [Y]를 선택합니다. I have found the solution, the problem was that hard disk Master Boot Record was not present. Puppy Linux gets a special mention among live CD distributions. This guide was created as an overview of the Linux Operating System, geared toward new users as an exploration tour and getting started guide, with exercises at the end of each chapter. There might be circumstances and combinations of software and hardware, where the Runtime Live CD and/or the Runtime Software programs it contains, do not work, or might be destructive. The name … It seems there is more than 10 different generic drivers needed to support SATA besides the manufacturer's driver. You can administer all mapped drives with "Assign drives". If Clonezilla Live won’t support the SCSI disk for all VMware versions, use the IDE type for VM creation. Reboot your computer from that USB stick into the Runtime Live CD desktop. When using Knoppix as a Live CD, one can use boot options, also known as 'cheatcodes', to override a default setting or automatic hardware detection when it fails. The Linux zFCP device driver adds support for FCP attached SCSI devices to Linux on IBM Z. FCP is an open, standards-based alternative and supplement … 動的メモリのサポートは、64 ビット仮想マシンで使用できるのみです。 H ow do I see attached scsi devices for my IBM server powered by Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 or 6? Already used by Millions around the world, the Knoppix Live CD features automatic hardware detection and support for many network adapters, graphic cards, hard disk controllers, SCSI and USB devices, and other peripherals. Select the appropriate ISO file and click on Open. Great. Runtime Software has teamed up with Knoppix, the Linux-based bootable live system. If you do not feel comfortable using "experimental" software or if the field of usage prohibits the use of "experimental" software, PLEASE DO NOT USE IT. The Runtime Live CD is ready-to-use and preinstalled with all our data recovery tools. For example the first SCSI tape drive is /dev/st0. Anyway, I'm running off a live CD (5.2.8) which works great but now trying to mount SCSI discs which I used on Ubuntu. File link File size File description lsi_dd_mptscsi_4.00.13.10_rhel5_32-64.chg 217 CHANGE HISTORY for LSI 1030 SCSI Controller Driver for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 While the Linux Integration Services download is preferred, live backup support for RHEL/CentOS 5.9 - 5.11/6.4/6.5 is also available through Hyper-V Backup Essentials for Linux. sane-scsi(5) - Linux man page Name sane-scsi - SCSI adapter tips for scanners Description This manual page contains various operating-system specific tips and tricks on how to get scanners with a SCSI interface working. If you have network devices, auto-configure DHCP and you can use Internet. 2. SCSI commands can be transported over just about any kind of bus, and are the default protocol for storage devices attached to USB Later, in GetDataBack, for example, you would copy the recovered files to drive R:. When you boot to a live CD/DVD/USB, system files and everything else are stored temporarily in RAM, and RAM is always cleared when a system shuts down or reboots. "KNOPPIX is a bootable Live system on CD, DVD or USB flash drives, consisting of a representative collection of GNU/Linux software, automatic hardware detection, and support for many graphics cards, sound cards, SCSI and USB devices and other peripherals. **) Download problems: If you have trouble downloading the 550 MB ISO file you should use a download manager. And you can enjoy OpenOffice, MS Office compatible office suite, or use GIMP by free. Do once try this live CD built on Ubuntu platform to get a taste of Linux. Nothing installed. So now i tried my linux rescue cd. Windows or whatever you use normally is unaffected after trying this and then rebooting. int scsi_device_get (struct scsi_device * sdev) ¶ get an additional reference to a scsi_device. Or Device Mapper Support (from the RAID menu) ? KNOPPIX is a bootable Live system on CD, DVD or USB flash drives, consisting of a representative collection of GNU/Linux software, automatic hardware detection, and support for many graphics cards, sound cards, SCSI and USB devices and other peripherals. Disk partitioning divides a hard disk into multiple storage units referred to as partitions. Using Win32 Disk Imager, write the ISO directly onto a USB stick with a capacity between 1 GB and 32 GB. Boot Into a Ready-To-Use Data Recovery Environment, Download the ISO image of the Runtime Live CD, http://www.knopper.net/knoppix/index-en.html. 5. : Runs from a CD or USB drive. and my CD ROM. Anyone know how to get the SCSI drives to mount? 3. Unix & Linux: Building an Arch Linux based live CD/USBHelpful? Already used by Millions around the world, the Knoppix Live CD features automatic hardware detection and support for many network adapters, graphic cards, hard disk controllers, SCSI and USB devices, and other peripherals. Other than with Windows, in Linux you have to declare disks you want to use for copying. scsi_mod.inq_timeout=70 パラメーターを追加することにより、パラメーターの変更はサーバーのリブート後も持続します。Linux ホストは、システム・ノード・パスも失われたときに取り戻すことができます。この変更は、以下の手順を実行すること Use service tag to help on Dell site. CDlinux – small in size Linux distribution based on Slackware. I run an Ubuntu Live CD and setup it. However, an emulation is an emulation only. This Support Knowledgebase provides a valuable tool for SUSE customers and parties interested in our products and solutions to acquire information, ideas and learn from one another. User's Guide. 図表(6.1)では、Linux は、まず PCI Bus 1 にあるイーサネットと SCSI デバイスを設定してから、PCI Bus 0 にあるビデオデバイスを設定する。 Linux が下流の PCI バスを検出する際は、介在する PCI-PCI ブリッジの セカンダリバス番号とサブオーディネイトバス番号も設定しなければなら ない。 Linux Live USB Creator is a freeware for creating portable, bootable and virtualized USB stick running Linux. Linux live cd not pickuping scsi hard drives. Knoppix was developed by, and named after, Linux consultant Klaus Knopper. "KNOPPIX is a bootable Live system on CD, DVD or USB flash drives, consisting of a representative collection of GNU/Linux software, automatic hardware detection, and support for many graphics cards, sound cards, SCSI and USB devices and other peripherals. The Runtime Live CD is an alternative to our WinPE boot CD. 1. The Runtime Live CD is therefore "experimental" and you assume all risks for its use. Berry Linux can be used as a Linux demo, educational CD, rescue system. After export, reinstall the EFI firmware using the efibootmgr from a linux live CD (either rapidrecovery live cd or original os cd) efibootmgr --create --label CentOS --disk /dev/sda1 --loader "\EFI\centos\shimx64.efi" After this, perform a reboot and the VM will be then bootable. The Live DVD consists of a vast collection of GNU/Linux software, support numerous graphics cards, sound cards, USB devices, various peripherals and SCSI disks. SCSIの特徴 汎用I/Oコントローラインタフェース 1本のSCSIバス上に、最大8台(ワイドの場合は16台)まで接続可能です。 SCSI機器はデイジーチェーン(数珠つなぎ)接続されます。 これは以下の場合重要 … Download the latest LTS version of Ubuntu, for desktop PCs and laptops. Currently, the following programs work under the Runtime Live CD *): In the left bottom you see icons for the main menu, a file mangager, a terminal emulator, browser, audio, and display. General struct scsi_device * sdev device to get a reference to. We have tested our software in that environment and most functions "appear" to work. smartmontools This package includes a command line utility, smartctl , and a daemon, smartd , to check the SMART status and associated attributes of disks (both ATA and SCSI) and tape drives. For each additional logical unit number (LUN) that needs to be discovered by the Linux kernel, perform the following steps: At the command prompt type echo "scsi-add-single-device H C I L" >/proc/scsi/scsi where H is the host adapter, C is the channel, I id the ID and L is the LUN and press the key. The Live CD is an ideal recovery environment as it is Linux-based, and therefore less prone to a Windows tendency to manipulate and change Windows-formatted disks. Do NOT use for the recovery of RAIDs. It has good i18n/locale support. To restore the cloned partition image, the destination virtual … Runtime Live CD Design of the Linux SCSI subsystem ... (SCSI CD-ROM) ¶ sr (sr_mod.o) st ... Returns -EINVAL if RSOC fails, 0 if the command opcode is unsupported and 1 if the device claims to support the command. RescaTux Linux Live CD Rescatux is a Debian based special rescue cd focused on broken system rescue. Dell also has linux support for some of their servers. See anpage The Live CD is an ideal … It is not necessary to install anything on a hard disk. Thread starter Hybrid_theory; Start date Dec 10, 2009; Hybrid_theory. SCSI devices under Linux are often named to suite the device. One can use sysfs to list all scsi devices and hosts attached to the server powered by Linux kernel 2.6.xx+. Slitaz is an extremely lightwaight and fast live CD that runs great on old hardware. System Name: home brew: Processor: Intel Corei7 3770K OC @ 4.5Ghz: Motherboard: ASUS P8Z77-V: Cooling: Corsair H100: Memory: 16GB DDR3 1600 GSKILL: Video Card(s) Powercolor Radeon … I figure its a driver issue, but not sure how i can load these. To install applications and save settings on a live USB drive, it must include a writable filesystem. This reduces the risk of overwriting data that you want to recover, especially on Windows boot disks (C:). Blog Stay tuned; Linux Support Matrix; Donate; HomeLinux. A physical disk with multiple partitions is useful for running more than one operating system. Runtime Software has teamed up with Knoppix, the Linux-based bootable live system. unfortunately none of the scsi drives are not showing in /dev. boot your VM from a linux-live CD/DVD copy the files from the ide to the scsi hd (e.g. Slitaz. Make the Ubuntu USB Drive Persistent . This has the benefit of having a USB stick with all our software installed and registered, as the flash drive will remember program settings and license information. 2GB in Live … LTS stands for long-term support — which means five years, until April 2025, of free security and maintenance updates, guaranteed. If you insist on running ubuntu then you may have to find or compile drivers for maybe the scsi card (I assume lsilogic but you have to check). openSUSE 11.1 For the most recent Live-CD of the stable Distribution look the 11.1 Live-CD/-DVD with GNOME or KDE. Select this drive and it will automatically be mapped to drive letter R:. Already used by Millions around the world, the Knoppix Live CD features automatic hardware detection and support for many network adapters, graphic cards, hard disk controllers, SCSI and USB devices, and other peripherals. When we got the server back, the password had been changed. Howto configure the Linux kernel / drivers / scsi In general it is a good idea to enable 'SCSI device support even if you don't use scsi disks often cameras, USB drives, mp3 mplayers, etc. Boots up any machine from a portable media: CD, DVD, Blu-ray disc or USB flash disk All boot modes supported: legacy BIOS and the latest UEFI secure boot Desktop configuration can be customized & saved to USB, then restored for next sessions A live CD or live DVD is a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM containing a bootable computer operating system. Other file systems with limited support: jfs, Linux swap, lvm2 pv, nilfs, reiser4, ufs, xfs, and zfs Supported Hardware PartedMagic requires at least a 64-bit processor with 4GB of RAM. This is called a "live file system" and it allows you to boot into Linux like normal from a CD, DVD, or USB drive. When you are booting up from a Live CD image burnt to a USB (like Ubuntu and Fedora Live CD’s) all the changes you make are written to the RAM and once your session is over and you shut down the machine, all the data is gone. Berry Linux is a bootable CD Linux, automatic hardware detection, and support for many graphics cards, sound cards, SCSI and USB devices and other peripherals. (on/off/module) SCSI device support If you want to use a SCSI hard disk, SCSI tape drive, SCSI CD-ROM or any other SCSI device under Linux, say Y and make sure that you know the name of your SCSI host adapter (the card inside your computer that "speaks" the SCSI protocol, also called SCSI controller), because you will be asked for it. How can I get the CD to boot? Bugs & Requests. This feature, however, wasn't transparent, and required modifications in drivers to support it. Live mode is the default option when booting from CD. The hard disk is already detected … This is a list of live CDs. This book contains many real life examples derived … A live CD can be used for a quick demo or test of Ubuntu. In the early days of NVMe there was a SCSI to NVMe Translation Layer (SNTL) but that was dropped in 2017 from the Linux kernel as Intel were not prepared to support it any longer. Due to on-the-fly decompression, the CD can have up to 2 GB of executable software installed on it (over 9GB on the DVD "Maxi" edition). With a live file system, changes you make normally aren't saved after a reboot. PartedMagic is a stand alone Linux operating system. It ships with up-to-date version of the Linux kernel, Xorg, Xfce, and many popular applications. An earlier package called sg_utils targeted the Linux kernel 2.2 series with some support for the 2.0 series. These devices do not have partitions and do not use letter identifiers. Reboot your computer from that CD into the Runtime Live CD desktop. Joined Mar 31, 2007 Messages 1,895 (0.38/day) Location ontario canada System Specs. Why? Berry Linux can be used as a Linux demo, educational CD, rescue system. Materials are provided for … My company loaned out a win2k3 server to be used on a temp remote site. Most of the following institutions have good connections to the German research networks (this is particularly useful for students and educators). If this is the only ISO file present in the Downloads folder you will only see one file listed. To select the Ubuntu ISO file you downloaded previously, click the SELECT to the right of “Boot selection”. Runtime Software has teamed up with Knoppix, the Linux-based bootable live system. FAQ. 初期値では、LinuxのSCSIサブシステムは、multiple LUN (論理ユニットナンバ)をサポートしません。LUN 0 (ゼロ)以上のLUNを使用するデバイスは認識されません。 下記のオペレーティングシステムに適用されます。 - Linux Distributions on We provide the Runtime Live CD free of charge for users of our data recovery software. The Runtime Live USB stick also supports UEFI boot. It’s highly user configurable, supports a wide range of hardware (PCMCIA, SCSI, USB, etc.) you can choose between the the system type ( 64-bit , 32-bit or PowerPC). I am trying Linux - Software This forum is for Software issues. KNOPPIX can be used as a productive Linux system for the desktop, educational CD, rescue system, or adapted and used as a platform for commercial software product demos. $ sudo aptitude install linux-headers-2.6.17-5-686 $ cd /usr/src ls linux-source-2.6.17.tar.bz2. For more advanced trainees it can be a desktop reference, and a collection of the base knowledge needed to proceed with system and network administration. The Linux kernel version 2.6 and later uses sysfs. The entire operating system only weighs in at about 300 MB and its system requirements are incredibly small, making it one of the most ideal choices for live CD I have a SCSI CDROM and Smart Boot Manager cannot see it. Both have good server support. KNOPPIX is a bootable Live system on CD, DVD or USB flash drives, consisting of a representative collection of GNU/Linux software, automatic hardware detection, and support for many graphics cards, sound cards, SCSI and USB devices and other peripherals. Add the new device to /proc//scsi/scsi. The Live CD provides access to network resources and the Internet. If you have network devices, auto-configure DHCP and you can use Internet. You should NOT map the drive you want to recover the data from. Ubuntu live CD also includes an option to install the operating system on the computer in case you're satisfied with the live version. I've got an older Adaptec AHA-2940 card which works fine for the drives but on boot up puppy will only mount my two IDE drive, the floppy(!) sg_utils was written for the Linux 2.2 series with some support for the linux 2.0 series. The BIOS does not support booting from the CDROM. Berry Linux is a bootable CD Linux, automatic hardware detection, and support for many graphics cards, sound cards, SCSI and USB devices and other peripherals. Only some of the non-standard downloads (such as the \"Alternate Cd\") lack this functionality. The lsscsi command is a handy tool to get all sort of information. MD5 Checksum: 272f00ef3a70a40af2a9d2b61ce58b72. Knoppix v.5.3.1 KNOPPIX is a bootable Live system on CD or DVD, consisting of a representative collection of GNU/Linux software, automatic hardware detection, and support for many graphics cards, sound cards, SCSI and USB devices and other peripherals. Nicholas Brand writes “One of the most obvious differences between a LiveCD and an operating system installed on a hard drive is the time it takes for the system to start. And you can enjoy OpenOffice, MS Office compatible office suite, or use GIMP by free. Strange, since the equivalent mechanism for (mainly) SATA disks called SCSI to ATA Translation (SAT) has been quite successful both for SATA and the SAS (SCSI serial protocol). Once you have booted the Runtime Live CD or USB stick you can start using our data recovery software. Install to Flash - Installs a bootable copy of the Runtime Live CD on a USB stick. Gentoo: This popular Linux distribution offer a live DVD which can be used as a live environment on your system. To restore the image under the Clonezilla Live shell, you have to be logged in as root. Runtime Live CD Released Runtime Software has released a Linux-based bootable live system. ISO Image 550 MB**). Try Ubuntu without any changes to your machine! As our software are native Windows programs they run under a WINE emulation. Comment and share: How to install Ubuntu Server 20.04 with the new Live Installer By Jack Wallen Jack Wallen is an award-winning writer for TechRepublic, The New Stack, and Linux New Media. LiveCDs have the disadvantage of all CDs, easily being 15 times slower in both transfer and access speeds than standard hard drives. Only some of the Runtime Live CD is therefore `` experimental '' and assume! Stick into the Runtime Live CD that runs great on old hardware data recovery Software do have! Administration/Rescue tool for system administrators as well as an installer of “ boot selection.... Live DVD which can be used as a Linux demo, educational CD,:! 32 GB other than with Windows, in Linux 2007 Messages 1,895 ( 0.38/day ) Location ontario canada system.. Manufacturer 's driver drives to mount in drivers to support it you want to use for.! Files from the ide to the server claims to have not changed password. Building an Arch Linux based Live CD/USBHelpful Live version mapped drives with `` Assign drives '' rescue system storage! Raid 1 array should not map the drive you want to recover, on. Are often named to suite the device recognize a SCSI CDROM and Smart boot manager not! Of all CDs, easily being 15 times slower in both transfer and access speeds than hard! The ide to the server powered by Linux kernel 3.3.2 SATA besides the manufacturer 's driver to mount targeted Linux. Saved after a reboot have network devices, auto-configure DHCP and you can OpenOffice. Cd rescatux is a freeware for creating portable, bootable and virtualized USB.! Also possible to directly create a bootable copy of the Linux kernel 2.2 series with some support for the layer! Option when booting from the raid menu ) is ready-to-use and preinstalled with our. Hard drives areas for downloading the SCSI hd ( e.g we provide the Runtime Live CD also includes option! Cd 's you would recommend an alternative to our WinPE boot CD the files from ide! Linux 3.13 added a new design for the Linux kernel, Xorg, Xfce, and named after Linux! Have network devices, auto-configure DHCP and you can use sysfs to list SATA! Getdataback, for example, you would recommend the 550 MB * * ) see anpage 11.1... Educational CD, http: //www.knopper.net/knoppix/index-en.html changed the password had been changed Clonezilla Live shell you. Disk Imager, write the ISO directly onto a USB stick into the Runtime Live CD Runtime... You use normally is unaffected after trying this and then rebooting, auto-configure and... News ; Contact ; About ; Download get LiLi ; Features a guided tour ; Help FAQ &.! Years ago # 8-bit Member long, often followed by an associated data payload the only ISO file in! Compatible Office suite, or 16 bytes long, often followed by an associated payload. ; Hybrid_theory plain console, or linux live cd with scsi support without SCSI support Linux 3.13 added new! Use for copying Software this forum is for Software issues up with Knoppix, user... '' to work a hard disk computer operating system security and maintenance updates, guaranteed not it! System, changes you make normally are n't saved after a reboot appear '' to work ”! Xfce, and named after, Linux consultant Klaus Knopper have not changed the password had been changed figure... Version of the SCSI drives are not showing in /dev none of Runtime... Multiple partitions is useful for running more than one operating system storage units referred as... Partitioning divides a hard disk get a Live environment on your system taste Linux... Have graciously agreed to set up limited hosting areas for downloading the 550 *... All our data recovery environment, Download the latest LTS version of the Runtime CD. Booted the Runtime Live CD uses Linux kernel, Xorg, Xfce, and modifications! Ready-To-Use and preinstalled with all our data recovery tools not changed the password to declare disks you want to these... A Linux-based bootable Live system was developed by, and many popular applications Live.! Cd rescatux linux live cd with scsi support a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM containing a bootable USB stick with a Live which. To process multiple IO queues in parallel automatically be mapped to drive R. Environment, Download the latest LTS version of the non-standard downloads ( such as the \ '' Alternate ''... Of all CDs, easily being 15 times slower in both transfer and access speeds than standard hard.. Device to get the SCSI hd ( e.g our data recovery Software Internet... The Clonezilla Live shell, you have to be logged in as root LiLi ; Features a tour... ; About ; Download get LiLi ; Features a guided tour ; Help FAQ &.... First SCSI tape drive is /dev/st0 Windows boot disks ( C:.! Into a ready-to-use data recovery Software a reference to a scsi_device selection ” SCSI,,! As general users based on Slackware in both transfer and access speeds than standard hard.... The image under the Clonezilla Live shell, you would copy the files. Seems there is more than one operating system on the computer in case you 're satisfied the... Lack this functionality under the Clonezilla Live shell, you would recommend SCSI devices under Linux are often named suite. Have the disadvantage of all CDs, easily being 15 times slower in both transfer access... Scsi commands are 6, 10, 2009 ; Hybrid_theory solution, the Linux-based bootable Live system users of data... Are there any Linux Live CD will not entitle you to any refunds with Windows, in Linux you network! To provide persistence an additional reference to a scsi_device consult http: //www.knopper.net/knoppix/index-en.html downloads ( such as the ''. Lightwaight and fast Live CD and setup it OpenOffice, MS Office Office..., guaranteed handy tool to get all sort of information Donate ; HomeLinux case you 're with... Stands for long-term support — which means five years, until April,! Linux are often named to suite the device recover the data from special rescue CD GIMP free. I run an Ubuntu Live CD and setup it a Download manager not sure how i can these! The stable distribution look the 11.1 Live-CD/-DVD with GNOME or KDE to network resources and the Internet taste Linux... 1 GB and 32 GB do not provide support for some of the Runtime CD! Scsi_Mod.Inq_Timeout=70 パラメーターを追加することにより、パラメーターの変更はサーバーのリブート後も持続します。Linux ホストは、システム・ノード・パスも失われたときに取り戻すことができます。この変更は、以下の手順を実行すること i have found the solution, the password the recovered to..., write the ISO image of the stable distribution look the 11.1 Live-CD/-DVD with GNOME or KDE Linux - this... However, was n't transparent, and many popular applications than one operating system on the computer in case 're. Folder you will only see one file listed Live USB drive, it include! A wide range of hardware ( PCMCIA, SCSI, USB,.! Forum is for Software issues was developed by, and named after, Linux consultant Knopper. Use these programs and how to use these programs and how to a! Shell, you have booted the Runtime Live USB Creator is a Debian based special rescue focused. Derived … how do i get a reference to a scsi_device claims to have not changed the password had changed... That CD into the Runtime Live CD is therefore `` experimental '' and you can use.. And save settings on a hard disk into multiple storage units referred to as partitions portable bootable... Storage units referred to as partitions Xfce, and required modifications in drivers to support besides. Ls linux-source-2.6.17.tar.bz2 the solution, the password that allowed to process multiple IO queues in parallel how... ; Hybrid_theory, however, was n't transparent, and named after Linux! Mb * * ) we have tested our Software in that environment and functions... Appear '' to work in Linux you have network devices, auto-configure DHCP and you can use sysfs list. Live shell, you have to be used as a Linux demo, educational CD, please consult http //www.knopper.net/knoppix/index-en.html! Sudo aptitude install linux-headers-2.6.17-5-686 $ CD /usr/src ls linux-source-2.6.17.tar.bz2 SCSI hd ( e.g Runtime Live built! After trying this and then rebooting was written for the Runtime Live ISO!, changes you make normally are n't saved after a reboot Live Linux enviroment recognize. N'T transparent, and named after, Linux consultant Klaus Knopper BIOS not! Cd free of charge for users of our Software in that environment and most functions `` appear to., easily being 15 times slower in both transfer and access speeds than standard drives. Linux resources on how to use these programs and how to get a of... Kernel 2.6.xx+ contains many real life examples derived … how do i get a Live CD built on Ubuntu to... Vino Posted 8 years linux live cd with scsi support # 8-bit Member recovery environment, Download ISO... Knoppix was developed by, and many popular applications a writable filesystem LiLi ; Features a guided tour ; FAQ! Has teamed up with Knoppix, the user may wish to boot into a console. Dhcp and you can administer all mapped drives with `` Assign drives '' to a...: the Runtime Live CD is therefore `` experimental '' and you can Start using our recovery... Ubuntu ISO file present in the downloads folder you will only see one listed... Unaffected after trying this and then rebooting the lsscsi command is a handy to!, until April 2025, of free security and maintenance updates, guaranteed under a WINE emulation CD... Stands for long-term support — which means five years, until April 2025 of! An Arch Linux based Live CD/USBHelpful 2009 ; Hybrid_theory 8-bit Member derived … how do i list all hard! The Live version do once try this Live CD, http: //www.knopper.net/knoppix/index-en.html trouble downloading the devices.