Total power output was 4,120 kW at 220 volts. The ships' stern was also frequently "wet", they were very slow entering a turn, and always required assistance from tugboats in shallow waters. Many of those had been ordered to abandon ship, but were left behind in the water when the Allied ships quickly departed the area. On board HMS Duke of York, Admiral Fraser ceased firing, and ordered his combined forces to attack with torpedoes. The shock force of the explosion also did a great deal of internal damage; fuel tanks were ruptured and electrical systems were damaged. New battleships, battlecruisers, pocket battleships, and heavy and light cruisers were built during the 1930s. Both Scharnhorst and Gneisenau were a new type of German battleship. The cruises revealed the wetness of the bow and bridge; in January 1939 her "Atlantic bow" was installed. Scharnhorst presented an imposing silhouette, with three triple turrets, a heavy bridge superstructure, and a single large stack. However, would a search of this new area of seabed be any more fruitful? Scharnhorst was a German capital ship, alternatively described as a battleship or battlecruiser, of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine.She was the lead ship of her class, which included one other ship, Gneisenau.The ship was built at the Kriegsmarinewerft dockyard in Wilhelmshaven; she was laid down on 15 June 1935 and launched a year and four months later on 3 October 1936. He did not realize that such "unsinkable" commerce raiders would provoke Great Britain more severely than 26,000-ton battlecruisers armed with 28.3 cm (11.1 inch) guns, which would be regarded as inferior to all the Royal Navy battleships and battlecruisers then in commission. We shall fight to the last shell'. A series of air attacks ensued; through evasive maneuvers, anti-aircraft fire, and Luftwaffe fighters, they were all repulsed. This deck was 20 mm (0.79 in) thick aft, increased to 50 mm in the central portion of the ship that contained the ammunition magazines and machinery spaces, and decreased down to 20 mm in the bow. Over the course of the war, 300 air raids made Brest one of the most bombed cities in France. [i] While moored there on 24 July, Scharnhorst was attacked by 15 Halifax bombers from 2 squadrons;[48] five bombs—two high explosive 227 kg (500 lb) and three semi-AP 454 kg (1,001 lb)—found their mark. The vessel's multibeam sonar produces an image of two objects, one 170m long, the other 70m long, and positioned at an angle to the first. The turrets allowed depression of the guns to −8° and elevation to 40° for "A" and "C" turrets; "B" turret was capable of depressing to −9°. As more water entered Scharnhorst, her speed continued to fall to 5 knots (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph). The latter escaped unscathed, but the former was struck four times; 72 men were killed and another 90 were wounded. The following day Scharnhorst arrived in Brest for repairs, which lasted for four months. The 10.5 cm gun mounts were equipped with 20 mm (0.79 in) gun shields. After two days she was transferred to Kiel for repairs, which lasted until July 1942. [2], Kriegsmarine battleship class, built 1935–1939. The wreck of a German warship torpedoed and sunk by a British submarine in 1940 has been discovered in deep water off the North Sea coast of southern Norway. At maximum fuel load, the ships were expected to steam for 8,100 nautical miles (15,000 km; 9,300 mi) at a cruising speed of 19 knots (35 km/h; 22 mph); Scharnhorst reached only 7,100 nmi (13,100 km; 8,200 mi) at 19 knots, while Gneisenau managed only 6,200 nmi (11,500 km; 7,100 mi) at that speed. Scharnhorst — German promo premium Tier VII battleship. [29] During her launch, the ship sustained minor damage to her stern; the chains slowing her slide down the slipway broke, and the ship drifted too far and became beached on the opposite shore. It was extremely strong amidships, but weakened on either end of the citadel. "Germany 3.7 cm/L83 (1.5") SK C/30 3.7 cm/L83 (1.5") SK C/30U", "German 2 cm/65 (0.79") C/30 2 cm/65 (0.79") C/38 AA MG", German naval ship classes of World War II, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Scharnhorst-class_battleship&oldid=1007188651, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 3 three-bladed propellers, 4.8 m (15 ft 9 inch) diameter, This page was last edited on 16 February 2021, at 22:09. The engines were rated at 160,000 metric horsepower (157,811 shp; 117,680 kW) at 265 revolutions per minute (rpm), and on trials produced up to 165,930 PS (163,660 ihp; 122,041 kW) at 280 rpm. During the battle of North Cape, a force led by the Royal Navy battleship HMS Duke of York sank Scharnhorst. [52][53][54], The ships left Brest late on 11 February, and remained undetected for the majority of the operation. In order to recreate the battle, the Bergen computers were loaded with navigational data from the log of the flagship, along with her documented performance data. In late 1942, Gneisenau was heavily damaged in an Allied air raid against Kiel. Scharnhorst radioed that she was 'surrounded by heavy units'. [74] Since this was such a long period, it was determined that it would be more efficient if during the repair work, the ship was reconstructed to mount six 38 cm (15 in) guns in place of her 28.3 cm weapons. German Scharnhorst Battleship Unassembled plastic model kit with photo-etch parts. The British sinking of the Scharnhorst on Boxing Day in 1943 was for Germans one of the psychological turning points of the war. After 1942, six 53.3 cm deck-mounted torpedo tubes were taken from the light cruisers Leipzig and Nürnberg and installed on the ships, with storage for 18 G7a torpedoes. The torpedo bulkhead, composed of Wotan Weich (Wotan, soft) steel, placed behind the armored belt was riveted; this was done because plate joints that had been incorrectly welded would not sufficiently withstand explosive shocks. [18], To combat the German Panzerschiffe, the French built two small Dunkerque-class battleships in the early 1930s. [58] On 8 March, Scharnhorst and four destroyers departed Gotenhafen; she arrived off Narvik on 14 March. Find out more about how the BBC is covering the. Scharnhorst was launched first,[6] and is considered to be the lead ship by some sources; they are also referred to as the Gneisenau class in some other sources,[7] as Gneisenau was the first to be laid down and commissioned. Duke of York then closed to 9,100 m (10,000 yd) to hammer away at the ship. They carried a number of smaller watercraft, including two picket boats, two launches, two barges, two pinnaces, two cutters, two yawls, and two dinghies. $20.00 + shipping. At 16:45 on 8 June, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau spotted the British aircraft carrier HMS Glorious, which was escorted by the destroyers Acasta and Ardent, at a range of around 50,000 m (55,000 yd). In this wartime painting, flares illuminate the night sky on the day after Christmas 1943, as elements of the British Royal Navy led by the battleship Duke of York surround and overwhelm the German battlecruiser Scharnhorst, sending her to a watery grave in what came to be known as the Battle of the North Cape. In early 1943, Scharnhorst joined the Bismarck-class Tirpitz in Norway to interdict Allied convoys to the Soviet Union. It's the ships you're after - not the men. More about the Battleship Scharnhorst-class battleship. It added to the galloping sense of defeat stoked up by German losses on the Eastern front. With her flared "clipper" bow and an extraordinary top speed of 33 knots, she had been described as one of the most beautiful warships ever built. That morning of the 26th, Scharnhorst was only an hour from the Murmansk-bound convoy. [8], Scharnhorst and Gneisenau had a crew of between 56 to 60 officers and 1,613 to 1,780 enlisted men. [19] This was also the view of the Kriegsmarine, which saw the 19,000-ton design as being unbalanced. The hammer was Force Two - the battleship Duke of York, the cruiser Jamaica, and four destroyers, which were approaching from the west. Similarly to most other German installations, those turrets had an electric system of rotation, but all other operations were hydraulic systems. These guns fired 45.3 kg (99.87 lb) shells at a rate of 6–8 per minute. They marked the beginning of German naval rearmament after the Treaty of V… In the Public Record Office in London, the actual navigational log of HMS Duke of York Admiral Fraser's flagship, records an entirely different position for the sinking from that shown in the official Dispatches. Our hearts have mellowed now, but in wartime those hearts are hardened. At 19:45, the ship capsized to starboard and sank, with her propellers still spinning. Steam was provided to the turbines by 12 Wagner ultra-high-pressure oil-fired boilers, which produced pressures up to 58 standard atmospheres (5,900 kPa) and temperatures up to 450 °C (842 °F). The guns were put into reserve in 1984, but continued to be fired during annual training. Reports of British ships in the area forced the ship to seek refuge in Stavanger for two days, before she resumed the journey to Kiel. Their hulls contained 21 watertight compartments and had a double bottom for 79% of their length. All of this armor was KC steel. The 31,500-ton Scharnhorst was commissioned on January 7 1939, and it often operated in partnership with its sister ship, Gneisenau. [2] When the Soviet army approached in early 1945, the ship was towed out into the outer harbor and sunk as a block ship, on 23 March 1945. The layout of the surviving weaponry, like torpedo launchers and gun-turrets, leaves no doubt. A 1000 lb bomb penetrated the armored deck just ahead of the forward turret; shell splinters detonated the ammunition magazine, which did tremendous damage to the bow of the ship and burnt out "A" turret; 112 men were killed and another 21 were injured. Building supplies. [17] Since 1933, Erich Raeder, the head of the German Navy, had argued to increase the defensive qualities of the Panzerschiffe, and to increase the offensive power of the main battery with the addition of a third triple turret. Only 36 men were rescued, out of a crew of 1,968. [40], Under the command of Admiral Günther Lütjens, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau broke into the Atlantic in late January 1941 to raid convoys between North America and Great Britain. At 15:31, Scharnhorst detonated a magnetic mine, which damaged the ship's circuit breakers enough to shut down the entire electrical system. In the engagement with Glorious, Scharnhorst achieved one of the longest-range naval gunfire hits in history. Don't forget building supplies! [50][51], In early 1942, the crews of Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, and the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen made preparations for Operation Cerberus, a daylight dash up the English Channel. The main armament of the Scharnhorst was nine 28cm guns in three turrets. In the case of triple-screw ships, this would have meant more than twice the horsepower per shaft of the Panzerschiffe, and in the case of a quadruple-screw ship, this would have amounted to more than 40,000 horsepower per shaft. During the invasion of Norway and Denmark which occurred from April to June 1940, the Scharnhorst sailed alongside the Gneisenau and engaged the Royal Navy’s battlecruiser, HMS Renown. Although there were 38 survivors, none had been picked up by the German warships. East of Dover, a flight of six Swordfish torpedo bombers attacked the ships without result. [23], The Scharnhorst-class ships were equipped with Krupp armor. The German first fast Battleships. The simulator's computers download a different area for the sinking - an area of the seabed approximately 20 sea-miles north of the position given in Fraser's official Dispatches. https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Scharnhorst-class_battleship Half an hour later, muzzle flashes were observed, from what turned out to be the old battlecruiser HMS Renown which had been part of the cover for a British minelaying operation. Admiral Bruce Fraser, aboard the battleship HMS Duke of York, was some 270 miles away, and steaming to cut off Scharnhorst after she was engaged by the three cruisers. The sinking of the Scharnhorst was an enormous psychological blow for the German nation, at the height of World War Two. A series of raids started on 30 March. Photographed through a porthole on the battleship Scharnhorst, during the winter of 1939-40.  © A virtual Battle of North Cape could now be fought. They were mounted in six Dop. The ships had a designed speed of 31 knots (57 km/h; 36 mph); on trials both vessels beat their designed speeds—Scharnhorst hit 31.5 kn (58.3 km/h; 36.2 mph) and Gneisenau made 31.3 knots (58.0 km/h; 36.0 mph). It was decided to use superheated steam propulsion, as the required total output for the desired speed was three times that of the Panzerschiffe. 'Lucky' Scharnhorst, as she was known in Germany, was a focus for national pride. The risk of further damage from air raids, and the loss of the Bismarck and most of the supply ships had forced a change of thinking by the naval staff on the use of these ships for Atlantic sorties. [18] He was also reminded that, despite the allowances of the Anglo-German Naval Agreement, the British had historically been sensitive about increases in main gun calibers aboard German capital ships. Scharnhorst struck Glorious at a range of approximately 24,200 m (26,500 yd), one of the longest recorded hits in the history of naval gunfire. The crew was augmented by another 10 officers and 61 men when serving as a squadron flagship. With the rudder hard over, the ships lost over 50% speed and heeled over more than 10°. 1,519 men were lost from the three ships. Also check if the product actually matches! [8], Initially, diesel propulsion was planned for these ships, as had been used for the three Panzerschiffe. When they opened fire, Scharnhorst was taken totally by surprise, and a shell from HMS Norfolk destroyed the Scharnhorst's radar. So he decided to withdraw to Norway, and use to the full her speed advantage of five knots. [18], Scharnhorst and Gneisenau were 226 m (741 ft 6 in) long at the waterline; Scharnhorst was 234.9 m (770 ft 8 in) long overall, while Gneisenau had a slightly shorter overall length, at 229.8 m (753 ft 11 in). The rather small caliber of her main battery guns was her main drawback, but that was offset by her higher rate of fire. [8], The German navy considered the ships to be poor sea boats; they were bow-heavy when fully equipped and very "wet" as high as the bridge. [72] Rear-Admiral Erich Bey was lost with his ship. The first capital ships of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine, it comprised two vessels: Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. Aft of the rear gun turret the belt decreased to 200 mm (7.9 in), and eventually tapered down to nothing at the stern. 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