Agro-ecosystem analysis (AESA) based integrated pests management (IPM) A. AESA B. Prohibited Content 3. There should be intermittent rainfall. The weather conditions favourable for the incidence of late blight are given below: i. iii. Prior to pustule formation, "flecks" may appear. Based on the above weather conditions, the forecasting of the disease can be made. Favourable weather conditions for its multiplication are given below: (a) Mean air temperature should range between 16 to 27°C. The severity of the leaf spot is higher in kharif season than in rabi and summer season. The pathogen survives from one season to the next as dormant mycelium (fungal threads) within the embryo of the barley seed. In the wheat season, the weather conditions are favourable for the yellow rust in north India. However, if the severity of the disease is high, then crop may suffer 50 per cent damage. Cloud cover should not be less than 80 per cent. 1807 - French scientist I. The leaf tissue turns yellow and chlorosis reach towards the centre of the leaf and form V shaped area with base of V towards the midrib. … Disease symptoms. The stripes are yellow to orange yellow. Wheat is the staple food for over ten billion people in as many as 43 countries of the world. Generally these diseases can damage the crop by 10 – 15 per cent. Though the black rust can survive in the northern hills throughout the summer season, the source of inoculum concerned in the epidemiology of the black rust is the Nilgiri hills of the south. During this period generally the weather conditions become favourable for the spread of black rust in Punjab. Favourable weather conditions for the appearance of leaf spots are given below: i. There is no major incidence of pests in this samba wheat culture. Under these conditions, late blight of potato is expected to appear after about a week. Brown rust can survive over a wide range of temperature. Therefore, forecast of this disease is very easy. This disease may appear at any phenological stage of the crop. It these conditions persist during kharif season, then high degree of severity of the disease is expected. Wheat rust can move from Nilgiri hills towards north in central India. TOS 7. Loose Smut - Ustilago tritici, Stem Rust / Black Rust: Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici, Stripe Rust /Yellow Rust-Puccinia striiformis, Home | About Us | Success Stories | Farmers Association | TNAU Publications | Contact Us, The postules are circular or slightly elliptical, smaller than those of stem rust, usually do not coalesce, and contain masses of orange to orange-brown Urediospores.Â. i. • Infections occur during periods of extended wetness. iii. The fungus is internally seed borne (dormant mycelium within the embryoof the barley seed). Insect pests 2. How to Download PDF Book [Full Guide] Outline of Practical Crop Production. Leaf spot may be of two types. It has been observed that primary source of infection is the plant residue left in the fields. Aeciospores germinate at 17-22°C and infect other plants forming either secondary Aecia or Uredia depending upon prevalent temperature of 25°C. Infections from spores arriving from a distance are termed primary infections. ii. These conditions adversely affect the spread of the disease. It is an important disease of groundnut. One of the factors causing plant diseases is parasites, those living organisms that can colonize the tissues of their host-plant victims and can be transmitted from plant to plant. Yellow rust spores move from Himalayas to plains of north-west India along with northerly winds. If transplanted crop: However, the following weather conditions should persist: i. Diurnal range of temperature should range between 24-34°C. Ergot symptoms become evident during kernel formation, when ergot bodies are formed in place of kernels. Poor field drainage and water stagnation further aggravate the disease, which is more in heavy soils than the sandy soils. The culture exhibited resistance to black (stem), yellow and brown (leaf) rusts. The weather conditions favourable for the incidence of late blight of potato are given below: i. Pustules also can be found on leaf sheaths, necks, and glumes. Content Filtrations 6. Pustules are usually separate and scattered, heavy infections -coalesce. ii. (a) Stripe rust, leaf rust, leaf blight, flag smut and Fusarium head scab of wheat by evaluating germplasm of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticales from the different centres spread all over India under All India Coordinated Wheat and Barley Improvement Project (AICW and BIP) under artificial epiphytotic conditions and their incorporation in cultivated lines for development of varieties resistant … Brown rust can appear in the entire wheat belt under favourable weather conditions. Relative humidity at 1400 hours should remain above 70 per cent. Night temperature should be greater than 10°C. Disease symptoms Symptoms are produced on almost all aerial parts of the wheat plant but are most common on stem, leaf sheaths and upper and lower leaf surfaces. I take this opportunity to thank the Agricultural Production Commissioner & Principal ... 3 WHEAT 122 4 PULSES 125 i. Redgram 125 ii. Hope you enjoyed our video lecture which covers the following topics: crops diseases list diseases of horticultural crops and their management pdf diseases of field crops and their management tnau diseases of field crops and their management agrimoon crop diseases and their management book pdf crop diseases and their management pdf in hindi diseases of field crops book diseases of field crops … High relative humidity should persist. Diseases of Rice: i. After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. iii. Mean temperature should not be more than 24°C. Swarming caterpillar (Spodoptera mauritia Boisduval) - Odisha, West Bengal, Jharkhand, … In fact, Himalayas are the source regions of wheat rust in the north and Nilgiri hills in the south. Later on during winter season, when wheat crop is grown in the plains of north India, rust has the tendency to migrate from the Nepal hills to plains of north India. Multiple regression indicated that maximum temperature alone is important in predicting the disease outbreak. The magnitude of the incidence of the disease depends upon the duration of wetness. There should be dew for at least four hours during the night. Weather conditions favourable for its multiplication are given below: (a) Mean air temperature between 15 to 20°C should prevail for a week. Climatic conditions are favourable for the wheat rust to survive in the Himalayan region during summer season on the host plant of Barberry. 2. Yield loses up to 70% have been reported, ranging from 30-70% . ii. If such type of conditions prevail for a week in mid-January, then yellow rust is likely to increase. The weather conditions favourable for the incidence of disease are given below: i. Leaf Rust / Brown Rust - Puccinia recondita This disease appears at flowering and podding stage in the form of Pycinia and Aecia. Report a Violation, Weather Parameter and Movement of Insects | Pest Diseases, Crops Fluctuated due to Climatic Parameters: 15 Crops. This rust appears in Punjab usually by the end of February to mid-March. Disease cycle of loose smut of barley is similar to as of loose smut of wheat. Whereas, it moves along with southerly winds from Nilgiri hills to northern India. iii. Therefore, wheat rust appears in north-west India when there exist favourable weather conditions. This rule is known as Beaumont rule. Content Guidelines 2. There should be more number of rainy days. Wetting, splashing rains and strong winds are favourable for disease spread. iii. ii. Temperature should range between 19-37°C during summer season and 17-26°C during winter season. But if these conditions persist for a longer period, the disease may continue through out the growing period of the crop. Stem become hollow due to internal rotting. Seed treatment with Carboxin 2g/kg (Vitavax 2g/kg). Severity of the disease is likely to increase if the minimum temperature remains below 23°C with relative humidity more than 90 per cent for many days. Disease can be controlled by planting resistant wheat varieties, planting disease-free seed and using a seed treatment prior to planting; disease may also be avoided by planting wheat early in the Fall and by shallow seeding Ergot disease Claviceps purpurea Ergot on wheat spike Wheat spikes infected with ergot Till … Plagiarism Prevention 4. Several studies have been conducted to predict late blight of potato by using various environmental conditions. Jhorar (1997) found that fall in maximum temperature and rise in afternoon relative humidity in the month of March accelerates the disease development. Higher the duration of wetness, higher is the infection. If these conditions prevail for a few weeks, leaf spots may appear. Diseases of Wheat 2. Relative humidity should range between 86 – 93 per cent. Proceedings of the Xth All India Wheat … Disease Management(Wheat Disease) Management options are generally the same for all corn seedling diseases. Humid conditions caused by excessive rainfall should persist. In India, during summer season, high temperatures do not allow either the wheat crop or the rust to survive in the plain areas. Weeds 5. However, intermittent rains are more favourable for the disease development than continuous dry spells or rainy days. 2. The student him/herself is doing the cultivation practices. iii. 1755 - French botanist Tillet published a paper on bunt or stinking smut of wheat; discovered bunt is a disease of wheat. Calm to light wind, intermittent rainfall, rainy days followed by clear days with bright sunshine and again rainy days with high humidity are favourable for the rapid spread of the disease. The ergot bodies, which are also called sclerotia, are formed from a hard mass of fungal mycelium, and are the over-wintering structures in … Survival : Both survive on stubbles and volunteer crops, Pustules (containing masses of urediospores) are dark reddish brown - occur on both sides of the leaves, on the stems, and on the spikes. Diseases of Groundnut 4. High humidity and lower temperature should persist. Maximum temperature is positively correlated with the population in 20- 30 day old crop and with the disease incidence in 45 day old crop. Copyright 10. Per cent transmission was reduced and the incubation period in mungbean plants was extended in November-December compared with July-October. Early leaf spot and late leaf spot. These conditions indicate that late blight of potato may appear within two weeks. Relative humidity should range between 77 to 86 per cent. Early leaf spot can appear after a few weeks of sowing. In view of high and stable yield performance over locations and resistant to leaf and stem rust diseases, the culture HW 1095 was released as TNAU Wheat COW 2 for the benefit of Tamil Nadu farmers. During winter season, wheat rusts move along with northerly winds from Himalayas towards northern plains, where wheat is grown. AESA BASED IPM - WHEAT Directorate of Plant Protection Quarantine and Storage N. H. IV, Faridabad, Haryana National Institute of Plant Health Management Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana ... Diseases 3. 4. Sunshine hours should range between 3.3 – 7.8 hours per day. Wide spread infection is directly associated with wet weather. Wide fluctuations in maximum temperature from 24-39°C, ii. Book Detail: Language: English Pages: 133 Author: TNAU Price: Free How to Download Book (Full guide) BREEDING OF FIELD & HORTICULTURAL CROPS – Course Outline RICE – Oryza sativa Rice Varieties Released Using Different Breeding Techniques Hybrid Rice Seed Production WHEAT – Triticum sp. Diurnal range of temperature should be between 18-37°C. Rainfall should not be less than 0.1 mm. These black teliospores often are blown away by the wind, leaving only the bare rachis and remnants of other floral structures. ii. Weekly mean temperature should be equal to or less than 24°C. Weekly cumulative rainfall should exceed critical value for two weeks. A system for forecasting the severity of wheat leaf rust in USA has been distinctly successful. Minimum temperature should not be less than 10°C. TNAU and officials in the Department of Agriculture in the past several years. ii. These diseases are found all over the world, where the groundnut is cultivated. Maximum disease severity occurs when maximum temperature is around 27°C and relative humidity should be around 92 per cent during rainy days. Originally found in many parts of the world but has been eradicated from the western hemisphere. During winter season, western disturbances cause cloudiness, rains, dew and fog over North India. WHEAT :: MAJOR DISEASES ::YELLOW OR STRIPE RUST . Wheat rust can be divided into three types: Yellow rust is mainly confined to the northern parts of India due to its low temperature requirement. Diseases of Rice 3. It moves from southern India towards Punjab. Problems and Progress of Wheat Pathology in South Asia. Weather conditions not favourable for the incidence of the disease: i. It is intended primarily for agricultural researchers, technicians and farmers in developing nations, but will also be of value to others. The veins show brown to black discoloration. Diseases of Pulses 5. Infection sites primarily are found on the upper surfaces of leaves and leaf sheaths and occasionally on the neck and awns. Decay of root bark. (b) Relative humidity should be more than 70 per cent. Based on these parameters, humid thermal ratio (HTR) was developed for use in the disease prediction model. tritici Symptom: . (c) There must exist partly cloudy conditions. The Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) had its genesis from establishment of an Agricultural School at Saidapet, Madras, Tamil Nadu, as early as 1868 and it was later relocated at Coimbatore. Source of Microscopic images: Diseases of small grain cereal crops- A colour handbook by TD Murray, DW Parry and ND Cattlin ii. Nene YL, Saxena SC, Singh A, Mishra AB, Singh DV, Joshi LM, Tyagi PD, Ruikar SK, Gupta RS, 1971. This disease is more common in those areas, where groundnut-groundnut cropping system is existing. It causes a disease in wheat and rye called “ear-cockle” or seed gall. Rice crop grown under irrigated conditions is more susceptible to this disease. TANJORE WILT / BASAL STEM END ROT; Ganoderma Wilt / ANABE ROGA Standard Operating Procedure for Integrated Pest Management FAO Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides (1982, 2002) White Fly Infestation in Fruit Crops Powdery mildew: Erysiphe graminis var. Disclaimer 9. Leaf wetness is also one of the causes of these diseases. iv. ii. Author: TNAU. Losses may be more in those areas where the crop is grown under irrigated conditions because of higher humidity. Lecture 18 - Diseases of Mulberry Mulberry Root rot- Macrophomina phaseolina Symptoms Sudden wilting, withering of leaves and affected plants fail to sprout after pruning and dry up completely. If these conditions continue for several days, then disease is likely to appear. When these weather parameters become favourable, late blight of potato appears. Weather conditions are favourable for the survival of wheat rust in central Nepal, which acts as a source region for the wheat rust. Diseases of Field Crops and Their Management 5www.AgriMoon.Com Spores land on leaves, germinate, penetrate the leaf, and cause a lesion 4 days later; more spores are produced in as little as 6 days. There should be high and prolonged rainfall. iii. Price: Free . Favourable weather conditions for the incidence of disease: i. Humid weather conditions and temperature ranging from 20-25°C are favourable for the initiation and rapid development of the disease. ii. Diseases of Potatoes. The crops are: Irrigated puddled lowland rice / any irrigated dry crop (maize / sorghum / pearl millet / finger millet / cotton / groundnut / sunflower / sesame. Favourable weather conditions for the incidence of rust: ii. The weather conditions become favourable for the appearance of rust by the end of January. Higher duration of leaf wetness due to dew, fog and rainfall. Temperature should range between 30.4 – 32.7°C. Critical value may be referred to the value which can keep the leaf wet. Favourable weather conditions for the disease are: ii. Therefore, northern and southern hills act as source regions of infection. Crop: Wheat, Scientific Name: Triticum aestivum Family: Poaceae : Leaf Rust/Brown Rust : Stem Rust : Stripe Rust/Yellow Rust : Loose Smut : Powdery Mildew Foliar diseases of wheat-leaf spots and blights In: Joshi LM, Singh DV, Srivastava KD, eds. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. There should be high relative humidity. ; Powdery growth later become black lesion and cause drying of leaves and other parts. About 90 per cent relative humidity persist for at least 10 hours. Bright yellow pustules (Uredia) appear on leaves at early stage of crop and pustules are arranged in linear rows as stripes. The entire inflorescence, except the rachis, is replaced by masses of smut spores. ii. If north to north-westerly winds persist, then the rust is likely to assume the highest severity. The development of the disease depends upon the infection, which is influenced by temperature conditions, leaf wetness and high humidity. It has been studied by many workers that weather conditions are favourable for the survival of the wheat rust on the mountains of Himalayas. If these conditions prevail for two days, late blight of potato is likely to appear after a period of 10 days. There should be high rainfall and more number of rainy days. The teliospores are also arranged in long stripes and are dull black in colour. ii. diseases of wheat 1. welcome… 2. university of agricultural sciences pat.301(2+1) diseases of field crops and management topic:fungal diseases of wheat by, nagendra alb2099 Therefore, incidence of late blight of potato is common in hilly regions. But during summer season, favourable weather conditions are found in the hilly areas of north India. 5. Greyish white powdery growth appears on the leaf, sheath, stem and floral parts. If these conditions prevail during the period of seedling, tillering and ear emergence, then the disease is likely to appear. Rotting of primary and secondary roots, rotten roots turn black and roots contain large number of black sclerotia. It appears earlier than the late leaf spot. Mean temperature should be between 22.5-23.5°C. iii. Blast Disease of Rice: The weather conditions favourable for the incidence of … 6. Yellow or stripe rust - Puccinia striiformis Symptom Mainly occur on leaves than the leaf sheaths and stem. Threshold of 10,000 juveniles/kg soil develop disease. Cloudy weather and dark period during night is more congenial for the speedy development of the disease. Pustules (containing masses of urediospores) are dark reddish brown - occur on both sides of the leaves, on the stems, and on the spikes. White fly population and incidence of yellow mosaic on mungbean are high in crop sown during July in India. … In 1920 it was affiliated to Madras University. TNAU assumed full responsibilities of Agricultural Education and Research and supported the State Agricultural Department by delivering research products. New Delhi, India: Malhotra Publishing House, 162-175. Weather conditions favourable for the appearance of yellow rust are given below: (a) Mean air temperature should range between 9 to 13°C. caused by rice disease in a year were to be only 5% of the total rice production in the country, it would amount to a great deal, and prevention of such a loss should constitute one of the important methods of augmenting our food security. ii. The pustules of stripe rust, which, contain yellow to orange-yellow urediospores, usually form narrow stripes on the leaves. Rice hispa scrapes the upper surface of leaf blades leaving only the lower epidermis Generally cloudy weather, low temperature and high humidity are favourable for the development of the disease. Different rules have been suggested for the forecast of late blight of potato: According to this rule, following weather conditions must prevail: i. IARI Toppers Provides Agriculture Notes,ICAR E Course Notes,JRF Notes,IBPS AFO,E krishi Shiksha,TNAU Notes,ANGRAU Notes,Agriculture Jobs Update,JRF Mock Test,JRF Old Exam Paper for agronomy horticulture,plant science,agriculture statistics,soil science,social science,icar ecourse pdf download,best agriculture books etc Nematodes 4. Minimum temperature should be less than 26°C. ii. Rodent pests B. Pests of Regional Significance 1. Relative humidity should be more than 90 per cent. Currently in north Africa and west Asia. Privacy Policy 8. Lecture 03 - Wheat: Lecture 04 - Pearl Millet: Lecture 05 - Maize: Lecture 06 - Sugarcane: Lecture 07 - Turmeric: Lecture 08 - Tobacco: Lecture 09 - Groundnut: Lecture 10 - Castor: Lecture 11 - Sunflower: Lecture 12 - Sesamum: Lecture 13 - Cotton: Lecture 14 - Red gram: Lecture 15 - Black gram: Lecture 16 - Green Gram: Lecture 17 - Bengal Gram: Lecture 18 - Soyabean: DISEASE OF FIELD CROP AND … This booklet is designed as a quick guide for identifying wheat and triticale diseases in the field. Mean relative humidity should be around 87 per cent. Affected plants can be pulled out easily. There should be excessive rainfall during the reproductive period. This disease usually appears at the later stage of the crop during rainy season. Diseases, India, Agrometeorology, Agriculture, Various Crops, Diseases of Various Crops. Before the spore masses break through the epidermis, the infection sites feel rough to the touch, As the spore masses break through, the surface tissues take on a ragged and torn appearance. (c) Intermittent cloudiness must exist in the end of January or first week of February. PATH371 - Disease of Horticultural crops and their management: GPBR111 - Principles of Genetics : Agricultural Engineering: GPBR112 - Principles of Seed Technology: AENG151 - Fundamentals of soil water conservation and engineering : GPBR211 - Principles of Plant Breeding: AENG252 - Protected cultivation and Post Harvest Technology: GPBR212 - Breeding of Field and Horticultural crops : … According to this model, when HTR falls between 1.3 and 3.2, then the outbreak of the blight can be expected. Similarly, Nilgiri hills in south India are the source region of wheat rust, where wheat is cultivated throughout the year. The end of February use in the form of Pycinia and Aecia by a microorganism 10... 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