Expelled members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. [165] Despite this cynical attitude, Zinoviev and Kamenev believed that a defective form of socialism could be constructed. [86] The 19th Congress abolished the Orgburo and its duties and responsibilities were taken over by the Secretariat. For example, KomKor was an acronym of Corps Commander, KomDiv was an acronym of Division Commander, KomBrig stood [76] The last party statute, which existed until the dissolution of the CPSU, was adopted at the 22nd Congress.[77]. The party led the 1917 October Revolution that overthrew the Russian Provisional Government during World War I. Up to July, these policies were disseminated through 41 publications, Pravda being the main paper, with a readership of 320,000. In 1949, the Communists emerged victorious in the Chinese Civil War, causing an extreme shift in the global balance of forces and greatly escalating tensions between the Communists and the western powers, fueling the Cold War. [71], The Statute (also referred to as the Rules, Charter and Constitution) was the party's by-laws and controlled life within the CPSU. At that time the Imperial Russian Table of Ranks was abolished, as were the privileges of the pre-Soviet Russian nobility. [87] Many members of the Secretariat concurrently held a seat in the Politburo. The World Census intercepted food drops in several war-torn regions to determine which nations spent the most on international aid. [79] This personnel overlap gave the CPSU General Secretary a way of strengthening his position within the Politburo through the Secretariat. After many unsuccessful attempts to create an anti-fascist alliance among the western countries, including trying to rally international support for the Spanish Republic in its struggle against a fascist military coup supported by Germany and Italy, in 1939 the Soviet Union signed a non-aggression pact with Germany which would be broken in June 1941 when the German military invading the Soviet Union in the largest land invasion in history, beginning the Great Patriotic War. The military ranks of the Soviet Union were those introduced after the October Revolution of 1917. [100] At its first such session in 1921, Lenin tried to persuade the joint plenum to expel Alexander Shliapnikov from the party; instead of expelling him, Shliapnikov was given a severe reprimand. Stalin, however, argued that such a foreign policy would not be feasible with the capabilities then possessed by the Soviet Union and that it would invite the country's destruction by engaging in armed conflict. [168] Bukharin began arguing for the creation of an autarkic economic model, while Trotsky said that the Soviet Union had to participate in the international division of labor to develop. [161] Khrushchev considered these "grey areas", in which the conflict between capitalism and socialism would be fought. 0 Reviews. [119] A secretary could be elected democratically through a secret ballot, but that was not often the case; in 1979, only 88 out of the over 400,000 PPOs were elected in this fashion. [32] He had appointed several reformers to leadership positions in the KGB, many of whom later became leading officials under Gorbachev. Create or edit article. [21], At the 23rd Congress held in 1966, the names of the office of First Secretary and the body of the Presidium reverted to their original names: General Secretary and Politburo, respectively. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ... Party leaders suspected that the mass intake of new members had allowed "social-alien elements" to penetrate the Party's ranks and document verifications of membership ensued in 1933 and 1935, removing supposedly unreliable members. [58] However, after Stalin's ascension, the Congresses became largely symbolic. [107] In 1905, Pravda began as a project by members of the Ukrainian Social Democratic Labour Party. [102] Each department established its own cells—called sections—which specialized in one or more fields. General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Secretariat of the CPSU Central Committee, Organizational Bureau of the Party Central Committee, Bibliography of the Russian Revolution and Civil War, Bibliography of Stalinism and the Soviet Union, Bibliography of the Post Stalinist Soviet Union, Organization of the Communist Party of China, Program of the CPSU, 27th Party Congress (1986), Executive Bodies of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1917-1991), Political Administration of the Ministry of Defence, General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia, League of Russian Revolutionary Social Democracy Abroad, League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class, Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Organization_of_the_Communist_Party_of_the_Soviet_Union&oldid=986072279, Organization of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Bodies of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Organizational structure of political parties, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 October 2020, at 16:48. [132] According to some authors, Leninism was by definition authoritarian. [88] "Selections of personnel" (Russian: podbor kadrov) in this instance meant the maintenance of general standards and the criteria for selecting various personnel. The party also sought to expand its sphere of influence beyond the occupied territories, using proxy wars and espionage and providing training and funding to promote Communist elements abroad, leading to the establishment of the Cominform in 1947. [154], — Lenin, citing the main features of capitalism in the age of imperialism in Imperialism: the Highest Stage of Capitalism[155], The Marxist theory on imperialism was conceived by Lenin in his book, Imperialism: the Highest Stage of Capitalism (published in 1917). The Congress was replaced i… However, after Stalin's ascension, the Congresses became largely symbolic. [169] In contrast to Trotsky and Bukharin, in 1938, Stalin said that a world revolution was impossible and that Engels was wrong on the matter. [110] The paper's main goal was to promote Marxist–Leninist philosophy and expose the lies of the bourgeoisie. [136], At the 1939 18th Congress, Stalin abandoned the idea that the state would wither away. Membership of the party carried obligations as it expected Komsomol and CPSU members to pay dues and to carry out appropriate assignments and "social tasks" (общественная работа). [156] According to Lenin, imperialism was a specific stage of development of capitalism; a stage he referred to as state monopoly capitalism. In the late Soviet Union the CPSU incorporated the communist parties of the 15 constituent republics (the communist branch of the Russian SFSR was established in 1990). [111] It's currently owned by the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. More information, and a list of congresses, on the English and Russian Wikipedia pages. Outside of Russia, social-democrats who supported the Soviet government began to identify as communists, while those who opposed it retained the social-democratic label. [181] They accuse Joseph Stalin of creating a system of mass terror, intimidation, annulling the democracy component of democratic centralism and emphasizing centralism, which led to the creation of an inner-party dictatorship. The CPSU was the sole governing party of the Soviet Union until 1990 when the union collapsed into their democratic nation states. At lower levels, the organizational hierarchy was managed by Party Committees, or partkoms (партком). [184], The CPSU was also criticized for not taking enough care in building the primary party organization and not having inner-party democracy. [131] Lenin's main contribution to Marxist thought is the concept of the vanguard party of the working class. [59] They were occasions for the party leadership to express the party line over the next five years to ordinary CPSU members and the general public. The warning proved prophetic. Call Number: Film A1059, in the microfilm cage in Lamont basement. [13] Khrushchev also failed to improve Soviet relations with the West, partially because of a hawkish military stance. The plan doubled the industrial workforce, proletarianizing many of the peasants by removing them from their land and assembling them into urban centers. [117] Until 1990, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic was the only republic that did not have its own republican branch, being instead represented by the CPSU Central Committee. [170], There were few if any, who believed that the Soviet Union was on the verge of collapse by 1985. [39] According to the British researcher of Russian affairs, Archie Brown, the democratization of the Soviet Union brought mixed blessings to Gorbachev; it helped him to weaken his conservative opponents within the party but brought out accumulated grievances which had been suppressed during the previous decades. [122] The Komsomol participated in nationwide policy-making by appointing members to the collegiums of the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education, the Ministry of Education and the State Committee for Physical Culture and Sports.